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Salamandra infraimmaculata

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA CAUDATA SALAMANDRIDAE

Scientific Name: Salamandra infraimmaculata
Species Authority: (Mertens, 1948)
Common Name(s):
English Arouss Al Ayn
Synonym(s):
Salamandra salamandra subspecies infraimmaculata Mertens, 1948
Salamandra semenovi Nesterov, 1916
Taxonomic Notes: This account follows the suggested Salamandra monophyletic Group distribution presented in Steinfartz, Vieth and Tautz (2000). Populations in the eastern part of the range might represent a separate species (S. semenovi).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Theodore Papenfuss, Ahmad Disi, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Gad Degani, Ismail Ugurtas, Max Sparreboom, Sergius Kuzmin, Steven Anderson, Riyad Sadek, Souad Hraoui-Bloquet, Avital Gasith, Eldad Elron, Sarig Gafny, Tuba Kiliç, Engin Gem, Uğur Kaya
Reviewer(s): Neil Cox and Helen Temple
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened since the species depends on areas of water for reproduction in generally arid or dry areas, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
History:
2006 Near Threatened (IUCN 2006)
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is present in south-eastern and eastern parts of Anatolia, Turkey; a small area north-western Iran; northern Iraq; Lebanon; and northern Israel (Tel Dan, upper and western Galilee, and Mount Carmel). There is little information available on the distribution of this species in Syrian Arab Republic and Iraq. The altitudinal range in the south of this species' range is known to be approximately 180-2,000m asl (in the Taurus Mountains).
Countries:
Native:
Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In Iran this species is considered to be rare, and populations in Israel are small but generally stable. In Lebanon it is considered to be widespread, but localized and probably not abundant. In Turkey this species is rare.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The terrestrial habitat of this species varies across its range. In Iran it is known from an area of arid sparse cork forest. In Turkey and Lebanon it has been found to inhabit damp forests and groves in mountainous or hilly regions, and to shelter under leaves, roots or stones not far from water. This species may persist in formerly forested habitats, although further studies are needed. Isolated populations of this salamander are found around pools (often temporary in nature) and slow-flowing spring-fed streams which the adults inhabit during the breeding season (winter through to early spring). It forages nocturnally, but may be seen in the daytime during wet weather. It produces live young (larvae with gills that undergo metamorphosis; Degani 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is threatened in parts of its range, such as Israel and Lebanon (and possibly Syrian Arab Republic), by infrastructure development and aquatic pollution by pesticides. In Lebanon introduced fish are also a problem. In Israel and eastern Turkey, large numbers of this salamander are killed on roads. This species is probably in decline in Turkey (as in other parts of the Middle East) as a result of damming of breeding streams, aquatic pollution, and an increase in ground water extraction resulting from the rapid expansion of irrigation schemes for agriculture, particularly in the eastern part of its range. Its habitat is being fragmented by habitat conversion throughout its range. This species may be subjected to collection for the pet trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Further fieldwork into its biology, habitat and distribution over much of its range is needed. It is unclear which species of Salamandra have been recorded from western Anatolia, and further investigation to identify these populations (which are not included here) is needed. In Turkey, this species is found in a few protected areas. It is present in the Mount Hermon, Mount Carmel and Tel Dan Natur protected areas in Israel and has been recorded in the Arz El-Shouf, Horj Ehden and Ammiq Marshes protected areas of Lebanon. The active creation of breeding habitat is taking place in the nature reserve within Mount Carmel, Israel. This species is protected by national legislation in Israel.

Citation: Theodore Papenfuss, Ahmad Disi, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Gad Degani, Ismail Ugurtas, Max Sparreboom, Sergius Kuzmin, Steven Anderson, Riyad Sadek, Souad Hraoui-Bloquet, Avital Gasith, Eldad Elron, Sarig Gafny, Tuba Kiliç, Engin Gem, Uğur Kaya 2009. Salamandra infraimmaculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.
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