Calotriton asper 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Calotriton asper
Species Authority: (Dugès, 1852)
Common Name(s):
English Pyrenean Brook Salamander, Pyreneen Salamander, Pyrenean Mountain Salamander, Pyrenean Newt, Pyrenean Mountain Newt, Pyrenees Mountain Newt, Pyrenees Mountain Salamander
Spanish Tritón Pirenaico
Calotriton punctulatus (Dugès, 1852)
Diemictylus asper (Dugès, 1852)
Euproctus asper (Dugès, 1852)
Euproctus pyrenaeus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)
Hemitriton asper Dugès, 1852
Hemitriton bibronii Dugès, 1852
Hemitriton cinereus Dugès, 1852
Hemitriton punctulatus Dugès, 1852
Hemitriton rugosus Dugès, 1852
Molge aspera (Dugès, 1852)
Molge bolivari Boscá, 1918
Triton asper (Dugès, 1852)
Triton bibroni (Dugès, 1852)
Triton cinereus (Dugès, 1852)
Triton pyrenaeus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854
Triton repandus Dugès, 1852
Triton rugosus (Dugès, 1852)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: We follow Carranza and Amat (2005) in transferring this species from Euproctus to the genus Calotriton.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Bosch, J., Tejedo, M., Lecis, R., Miaud, C., Lizana, M., Edgar, P., Martínez-Solano, I., Salvador, A., García-París, M., Recuero Gil, E., Marquez, R. & Geniez, P.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Near Threatened because its extent of occurrence is probably not much greater than 20,000 km², and its habitat is in decline, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found throughout much of the Pyrenean mountain range of France and Spain, where it occurs at a wide range of altitudes from 175m to over 3,000m asl (on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees), although the average range is 700-2,500m asl. It has recently been found in the Corbieres Mountains, 20km south-east of Carcassonne, in south-eastern France, which represents a range extension northwards.
Countries occurrence:
Andorra; France; Spain
Lower elevation limit (metres): 175
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is abundant or common in parts of its restricted range, although several peripheral populations have disappeared largely through loss of habitat. It is more common in the west of its range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a largely aquatic montane species that inhabits cold mountain lakes, torrents, streams, and occasionally cave systems, that are ice-free for at least four months of the year (Griffiths 1996). The eggs are deposited individually under rocks and stones in well-oxygenated, cold streams with rocky bottoms, and the larvae then develop in these streams. This species has a small clutch size of 20-40 eggs (Griffiths 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are loss and damage of its aquatic habitats. Infrastructure development and tourism lead to over-exploitation of water resources, including from skiing facilities. The introduction of predatory trout (salmonids) and other fish is also a threat, leading to population extinctions, especially in mountain lakes. Pesticides are readily accumulated in the body tissues of this largely insectivorous species, and several populations demonstrate contamination by these chemicals (Gasc et al. (eds.) 1997). It is considered likely to be vulnerable to climate change.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has been recorded from Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido and Parque Nacional de Aigües Tortes y Lago San Mauricio, Spain, and presumably occurs in several other protected areas. It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive, and it is protected by national legislation in Spain.

Citation: Bosch, J., Tejedo, M., Lecis, R., Miaud, C., Lizana, M., Edgar, P., Martínez-Solano, I., Salvador, A., García-París, M., Recuero Gil, E., Marquez, R. & Geniez, P. 2009. Calotriton asper. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T59448A11943040. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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