Necturus maculosus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Proteidae

Scientific Name: Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque, 1818)
Common Name(s):
English Mudpuppy
Sirena maculosa Rafinesque, 1818
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species is genetically most closely related to Necturus beyeri and Necturus alabamensis (Guttman et al. 1990). Some authors have included in this species certain subpopulations in the Black Warrior River drainage; those apparently comprise two species, N. alabamensis and an undescribed species (see Guttman et al. 1990). The subspecies N. m. louisianensis was proposed as a distinct species by Collins (1991, 1997), but supporting data are lacking. Petranka (1998) and Crother et al. (2000) treated louisianensis as a subspecies. See Maxson et al. (1988) for information on Necturus phylogeny based on albumin analysis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and its presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in North America (USA and Canada) from southern Manitoba to southern Quebec, south to Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, northern Mississippi, northern Alabama, and northern Georgia (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from the Coastal Plain. Introduced in New England Rivers. See Cochran (1991) for information on distribution in the north-central U.S. in relation to postglacial events.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Manitoba, Ontario, Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000, and the population appears to be stable. It is abundant in many northern lakes and rivers (Petranka 1998).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Habitats include permanent lakes, ponds, impoundments, streams, and rivers of all sorts. This species is a bottom dweller that is often under rocks, debris, bank overhangs, etc., during daylight. Animals may move into slack water shallows in late fall and early winter. Eggs are attached to undersides of objects in water. Animals may move upstream to spawn (Green and Pauley 1987). It apparently tolerates some water pollution and siltation.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Water pollution and sedimentation continue to affect the species’ habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
Despite widespread pollution and siltation of streams in eastern North America, this species appears to be in minimal need of protection (Petranka 1998).

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Necturus maculosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59433A64731610. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
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