Thorius munificus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Thorius munificus
Species Authority: Hanken & Wake, 1998
Common Name(s):
English McDiarmid Thorius
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A4ac; B1ab(i,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Jean Raffaelli, James Hanken, Mario García-París
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 100 km², all individuals are known from a single location, and there is a continuing rapid decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals. Additionally, the species is known to have declined by more than 80% in recent years for reasons that are not fully understood and these declines are likely to continue if the species is not already extinct.
Date last seen: 1997
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from a single location consisting of a few sites above Las Vigas, central Veracruz, Mexico, at 2,400-2,600 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):2400
Upper elevation limit (metres):2600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population of this species has declined, it was abundant in the past but has not been seen since 1997. Surveys in 2003, 2004, and 2006 by multiple researchers were unsuccessful in finding any animals in suitable habitat.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a terrestrial species and inhabits pine-oak and pine forest, woodlands, and madrone (arbutus forest) with abundant shrubby and ericaceous plants. It is generally found under bark and fallen logs, and in leaf-litter. It reproduces by direct development.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is severe habitat loss and degradation as a result of logging, agriculture (including livestock farming), and human settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has not been recorded in any protected areas, though it may be present in Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote (this requires confirmation). Certainly, remaining habitat in the range of this species is in urgent need of protection.

Citation: Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Jean Raffaelli, James Hanken, Mario García-París. 2008. Thorius munificus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T59419A11936812. . Downloaded on 25 October 2016.
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