Thorius minydemus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Thorius minydemus Hanken & Wake, 1998
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-09-10
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Lamoreux, J.
Contributor(s): Wake, D., Pineda, E., Parra-Olea, G., Hanken, J. & Aguilar-López, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Arias Caballero, P. & Hobin, L.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 479 km2, the population is severely fragmented and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in central Veracruz, Mexico.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from the same area as in the last assessment: the mountains north and west of Xalapa City, central Veracruz, Mexico, at 2,100-2,500 m asl. No changes have been made to its range map, but its extent of occurrence (479 km2) and area of occupancy (130 km2) have been calculated.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Veracruz)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:130
Lower elevation limit (metres):2100
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has apparently always been rare, although a very small number of specimens were found at Cerro Loma Alta (c. 1999) after intensive searching. A visit to Cerro Loma Alta in 2003 yielded no specimens and researchers noted serious habitat degradation had taken place since the previous visit. Sean Rovito found one specimen at La Joya in 2009. Recent studies (2010-2014) performed by Eduardo Pineda and his group at INECOL found 2 specimens, one at the type locality ("the vicinity of La Joya") and a second at Reserva San Juan del Monte, Veracruz. The population is believed to be severely fragmented and, due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits cloud forest and pine-oak forest, with an abundance of bromeliads (especially in the oaks). It is terrestrial and  can survive in somewhat degraded forest. It presumably reproduces by direct development.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is deforestation and alteration of the original forest habitat from logging, mining, agriculture (including slash and burn practices), livestock ranching, and human settlement. One of the known localities, Cerro Loma Alta, was visited in 2003 and was found to be virtually destroyed as a result of logging and invasive plants. Similarly, all areas surrounding La Joya are highly disturbed by extensive logging and mining. Between 2003 and 2004, the area of forest habitat available at this locality was halved due to the expansion of mining activities; the remaining available habitat was only about 15 ha in 2004.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions
One specimen was found in 2012 in the San Juan del Monte protected area.

Conservation Needed

It is necessary to reconnect the remaining forest patches with vegetation corridors and to implement educational programs about this species to eradicate the false idea that this amphibian is dangerous (E. Pineda & J.L. Aguilar-López pers. obs. Red List Assessment Workshop, June 2014). Protection of the species remaining habitat is already required.

Research Needed

In light of the small number of records, but severe threats, further field surveys at known sites and the wider region are needed to better understand the species distribution, and population monitoring is required to prevent numbers falling too low without futher intervention on behalf of the species.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Thorius minydemus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T59418A53986401. . Downloaded on 24 May 2018.
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