Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Thorius infernalis
Species Authority: Hanken, Wake & Freeman, 1999
Common Name(s):
English Atoyac Minute Salamander
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Mario García-París, James Hanken
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 100 km2, all individuals are known from a single location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals.
Date last seen: 1980s
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from a single site near Atoyac, in the Sierra Madre del Sur de Guerrero, central Guerrero, Mexico, at 1,400m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Number of Locations: 1
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1400
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Only two specimens are known, and it was probably never common. It has not been seen since the early 1980s, despite searches.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The only known specimens were found in riparian vegetation along hillsides, presumably in forest. The species seems to be terrestrial, living under logs and bark. It is not known whether or not it can withstand habitat degradation. It reproduces by direct development.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most of the potential habitat is now under coffee cultivation, and the remaining forest is under severe pressure from expanding agriculture and human settlements.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has not been found in any protected area, and forest conservation along the Milpillas-Atoyac transect is urgently needed. Further survey work is required to determine whether or not this species survives in the wild.

Citation: Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, Mario García-París, James Hanken. 2008. Thorius infernalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T59412A11933830. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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