Parvimolge townsendi 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Parvimolge townsendi
Species Authority: (Dunn, 1922)
Common Name(s):
English Townsend's Salamander
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ac+4ac ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, James Hanken, Mario García-París
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because The species has not been located despite numerous recent attempts and appears to have recently undergone an 80% population decline, over the past ten years or three generations, which is presumed to be continuing. Its habitat is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of the habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Endangered (EN)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs on the Sierra Madre Oriental from around Cuautlapan north to Teocelo in east-central Veracruz, Mexico, at 800-1,500 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Lower elevation limit (metres): 800
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It used to be uncommon, but has undergone significant population declines. The species has only been observed once since 1997 despite many attempts to locate it.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits cloud and oak forest, and is usually found living in bromeliads or on the ground in terrestrial microhabitats. This species is somewhat adaptable, and can survive in shaded coffee plantations provided that humidity levels are maintained, but it does not tolerate the opening up of the landscape (which leads to the drying out of its microhabitat). It is terrestrial and reproduces by direct development.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is habitat loss due to expanding agriculture and human settlements, and extraction of wood.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known from any protected areas, making habitat protection an urgent priority for this species. It is listed as "Threatened" (Amenazada) by the Mexican government. Further studies are needed into the reasons for the decline of this species.

Citation: Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, James Hanken, Mario García-París. 2008. Parvimolge townsendi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T59328A11918563. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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