Bolitoglossa synoria 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Bolitoglossa synoria McCranie & Köhler, 1999
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-06
Assessor(s): Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., McCranie, R., Köhler, G. & Castañeda, F.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 100 km2, all individuals are in a single location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Cerro El Pital.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on Cerro El Pital in the Department of Ocotepeque in south-west Honduras, and in adjacent north-western El Salvador, at 2,150 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
El Salvador; Honduras
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):2150
Upper elevation limit (metres):2150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is an uncommon species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It lives on low vegetation in lower montane moist forest, and in nearby degraded areas where there is good cover. Animals have been recorded from bromeliads, a tree fern, on tree trunks, under ground cover, and close to streams in cloud forest (Köhler et al. 2006). It breeds by direct development.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is habitat loss and degradation due to the impacts of forest fires, and encroachment by subsistence farming.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Cerro El Pital, which is the highest point in El Salvador, was declared a Biological Reserve in 1987, but on the Honduran side of the border only. Expansion of this protected area to include all of the Cerro El Pital is urgently needed.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata version of the 2009 assessment was created to correct the Assessor names (and hence the assessment citation) and Reviewer names.

Citation: Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., McCranie, R., Köhler, G. & Castañeda, F. 2010. Bolitoglossa synoria (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T59213A114577360. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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