Theloderma horridum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Theloderma horridum (Boulenger, 1903)
Common Name(s):
English Thai Bug-eyed Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Peter Paul van Dijk, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from southern Thailand (Taylor, 1962), Peninsular Malaysia (and Tioman Island) (Dring, 1979, Manthey and Grossmann, 1997), Singapore (Leong 2000), from two localities in Borneo (Malaysia) and from three localities in Sumatra, Indonesia and Siberut in the Mentawais. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It is a lowland species occurring between 100 and 800m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Malaysia; Singapore; Thailand
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a difficult to find species, evidenced by the small number of records, and its discovery in well-surveyed Singapore as late as the year 2000 (Leong, 2000).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The few known specimens were encountered in lowland rainforest. Eggs are placed above water-filled cavities in trees. One group of tadpoles was found in a water-containing hole in the trunk of a large tree. It is a microhabitat specialist of old-growth primary forest.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main impacts have been the extensive logging and clearing of lowland rainforest throughout the species' known range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Of the two known occurrences in protected areas in mainland Southeast Asia (Bukit Timah, Singapore, and Templer's Park, Malaysia), only one protected area is reasonably free from degradation. Securing the integrity of Templer's Park, designating Gunung Lawit as a protected area if suitable forest remains, and surveys and biological studies are all recommended. In Borneo, the known locality is in the Danum Conservation Area.

Citation: Peter Paul van Dijk, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming. 2004. Theloderma horridum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59035A11873218. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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