|Scientific Name:||Evynnis cardinalis (Lacepède, 1802)|
Evynnis edita Lacepede, 1802
Parargyrops edita Tanaka, 1916
Sparus cardinalis Lacepède, 1802
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 10 March 2014. Available at: http:// research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalogfishcatmain.asp.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Further work is needed for a taxonomic review of the genus Evynnis (Iwatsuki et al. 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Iwatsuki, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Pollard, D.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Comeros-Raynal, M. & Gorman, C.|
Evynnis cardinalis occurs in the Indo-West Pacific from Japan to Viet Nam and Indonesia to depths of 100 m. This species is a very popular marine resource throughout most of its range and there is evidence of significant stock reductions. In Viet Nam, a stock decline of 58% was recorded over a period of five years, while in Taiwan reductions of 60% from 1993-2008 were reported, and annual catch reductions recorded also after the 1980s in China. This species also exhibits life history characteristics that predispose it to impacts from heavy exploitation, including longevity and late maturity. We assume that the population was higher before the period over which the declines were recorded. Therefore, the population declines over the past 39 years (three generations) is at least 50% based on the rapid declines recorded over shorter periods which are exacerbated by the intrinsic life history characteristics of E. cardinalis. It is therefore listed as Endangered under criterion A2bd. We recommend careful monitoring of this species and the consideration of additional management regulations.
|Range Description:||Evynnis cardinalis is distributed in the northwest Pacific from China, Japan and Korea to Viet Nam and Indonesia (Chen and Qui 2005, Xia et al. 2007). This species is primarily distributed from 30–60 m depth (Chen and Qui 2005) but occurs to 100 m depth.|
Native:China; Indonesia; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Taiwan, Province of China; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Evynnis cardinalis is more common in the southern part of its range and in northern Viet Nam and the South China Sea (Y. Iwatsuki pers. comm. 2009). From 1993 the catch was recorded at 400 tonnes and in 2008 had declined to 150 tonnes in Taiwan (Liao pers. comm. 2009). There have been declines in the numbers and biomass of the spawning stock in China as well (Xia et al. 2007).|
In the Gulf of Tonkin, Viet Nam, this species is most abundant at depths from 30–50 m, and the stock density and biomass increases from shore to 50 m depth. A high variation in catch rates of this stock in all strata is also observed: mean catch rates estimated for the depth stratum of 50–100 m in 2001 and 2005 were respectively 15.5 kg/h and 1.7 kg/h. In general, the catch rate of this stock has decreased significantly from 28.8 kg/h (2001) to 11.1 kg/h (2005), with p < 0.05. Corresponding to this decrease in catch rate, biomass of the stock has also declined considerably; the estimates of the stock biomass in 2001; 2003; 2004 and 2005 are 33,952 tonnes (CV= 16%); 12,150 tonnes (CV= 29%); 21,389 tonnes (CV= 23%) and 14,414 tonnes (CV= 34%), respectively. Therefore, during 2001–2005, this stock has declined by 58% (Nguyễn 2006).
The spawning biomass per recruit (SBR) of E. cardinalis in the Beibu Gulf is estimated to be 16.76% of its unfished level, indicating that the fishery is overfished and has also experienced recruitment failure (Feng et al. 2009a). Additional analysis suggests that SBR in the Beibu Gulf is 12.51% of the unexploited level (Feng et al. 2009a). The status of this stock was also assessed using the egg production per recruit model (EPR) which was estimated to be 15.49% of the unexploited level under the current fishing mortality rate, which also indicated that the fishery is over-fished (Wang et al. 2011). The catch rates for E. cardinalis in the Beibu Gulf were found to be higher during winter and spring than in autumn and summer, with the highest catches from March to May. The catch rates of biomass were 10.27 kg/h and catch rates of individual numbers were to 700.9 ind/h (Chen and Qiu 2005). Data from trawl surveys in the Beibu Gulf indicate that the stock has annual variation with seasonal changes in catch rates caused by immigration during the spawning period and catch rates higher in March and May. Catches rates fluctuated between 35.8 kg/hour in 2000 and 2.73 kg/hour in 1992 (Chen and Qiu 2005). This species is considered to be overexploited in the south Fujian and Taiwan bank fishing ground due to overfishing of immature individuals (Ye 2004).
Catches from the three provinces of mainland China including Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan, facing the South China Sea were 2,452,958 tonnes in 1995 and largely exceeded the estimated stock size of 1,200,000 tonnes (discounting catches of Fujian Province, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and Viet Nam). Catches of high value species including Lutjanus erythropterus, Larimichthys crocea, E. cardinalis, and Saurida spp. have also declined (Chen 1999). This species is considered to have three geological stocks: Taiwan Strait stock, South China sea stock and the Beibu Gulf stock (Zeping 1983).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Evynnis cardinalis is primarily distributed from 30 m to 60 m depth (Chen and Qiu 2005) but can occur to 100 m. This species is found over a wide range of bottom types, but is more common close to reefs or on rough bottoms. Small individuals are very common at some localities in shallow, sheltered bays; larger fish often occur in deeper water (Eggleston 1974). The maximum age for this species is ~30 years (Hou et al. 2008) and it has a maximum length of 40 cm TL (Eggleston 1974). Evynnis cardinalis grows rapidly in the first two years of life and attains maturity at around seven years of age (Ye 2004, Hou et al. 2008a), at a length of about 11.2 cm (Chen 1999).|
Evynnis cardinalis undertakes a seasonal migration in the Beibu Gulf, China, towards the northeastern part of the gulf in late autumn and winter. Spawning takes place in the spring and the recruits disperse widely in the gulf. Juveniles inhabit coastal waters.
Generation length for E. cardinalis is estimated to be approximately 13 years, using the following equation for a gonochoristic fish species: Generation length = Σxlxmx/Σlxmx
|Generation Length (years):||13|
|Use and Trade:||This species is one of the most valuable and popular marine fish resources in China (Xia et al. 2007). In Taiwan, mariculture of wild caught juveniles has been established (Yeh 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||Evynnis cardinalis is threatened by overexploitation. This species has experienced significant population declines in the Beibu Gulf and the south Fujian and Taiwan bank fishing ground (Ye 2004, Chen and Qiu 2005a, Feng et al. 2009, Wang et al. 2011). Values of spawning biomass per recruit (SBR) <25% of unexploited levels indicate stock collapse, as defined in Griffiths (2000) for South African line-fish species. Spawning biomass per recruit for E. cardinalis in the Beibu Gulf has been estimated to be below 20% of unexploited levels, indicative of stock collapse. In Viet Nam, stocks have declined by 58% during 2001–2005 (Nguyễn 2006). This species constitutes 17.9% of the otter trawl and 8.6 (<20 m) and 11.6% (21–30 m) of the pair trawl bycatch landings in northern Viet Nam waters (Son et al. 2005). In China, the annual catch decreased after the 1980s, indicating a strong decline in the numbers and biomass of older fishes (i.e., the spawning stock) (Ye 2004, Chen and Qiu 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||In the Beibu Gulf, a closed season and closed fishing areas are recommended to improve SBR under current fishing mortality, in addition to a minimum landing size of 10.4 cm. The proposed measures could restore SBR to 28.39% of the unfished level, increase yield per recruit (YPR) in mass up to 31.95% and prevent the fishery from collapsing. It is also recommended that fishing effort be reduced by 32.5% in order to attain a level of sustainable exploitation (Feng et al. 2009). The closed fishing season was found to be most effective when implemented from July to August or September and would improve SBR and YPR considerably (Feng et al. 2009). Similarly, a closed fishing season and larger length of capture would improve egg production per recruit (EPR). It is suggested that relevant fishing effort be reduced by 15.53% or to extend the age at capture to allow the EPR to reach at least 20% of the unexploited level (Wang et al. 2011). Although the distribution of E. cardinalis overlaps with MPAs throughout its range (World Database of Protected Areas, accessed March 2014), this species is heavily exploited in the Beibu Gulf where additional protected areas have been recommended.|
|Citation:||Iwatsuki, Y. & Carpenter, K.E. 2014. Evynnis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59034974A59034995.Downloaded on 23 November 2017.|
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