|Scientific Name:||Pseudophilautus procax|
|Species Authority:||(Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005)|
Philautus procax Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Meegaskumbura, M. & Pethiyagoda, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Nowakowski , J.|
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are estimated to be 8 km2, all individuals are in a single threat-defined location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in southwestern Sri Lanka.
|Range Description:||This species is known from only one threat-defined location in Morningside Forest Reserve in the Rakwana Hills, in the Sinharaja area of south-western Sri Lanka, at 1,060 m asl (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005). It is probably restricted to this area, which is comprised of a single large forest remnant embedded in a deforested matrix. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 8 km2, which is also taken as a proxy for area of occupancy (AOO).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common in suitable habitat. A recent survey produced observations of eight individuals over a two-hour period (M. Meegaskumbura pers. comm. 2014). There are no data to indicate population declines.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a forest habitat specialist, found near streams and marshy areas in closed-canopy cloud forest, including forests disturbed by cardamom plantations. At night, males perch up to about two meters above ground, on leaves, from which they vocalize (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005). It breeds by direct development and is not dependent on water.|
|Use and Trade:||There are no reports of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||The habitat of this species is threatened by the expansion of tea and cardamom plantations, the collection of wood, illegal mining, fires, expanding human settlements, and agro-chemical pollution (Surasinghe and Jayaratne 2006).|
|Conservation Actions:||It is found only in the Morningside Forest Reserve. This area receives some level of government protection, but is not an official conservation area (Janzen and Bopage 2011, R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). While the government has purchased much of the land around Morningside, there is still pressure from land use within the reserve; a tea/cardamom plantation operates at the centre of the reserve and there is illegal clearing of understory to establish small parcels for cardamom cultivation (R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). There is need for improved protection of the area, and incorporation of Morningside into the contiguous Sinharaja World Heritage Site would help prevent future loss of remaining forest habitat (R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). Research is needed to better understand its life history, population status and current threats.|
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Pseudophilautus procax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 August 2015.|