Raorchestes parvulus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Raorchestes parvulus (Boulenger, 1893)
Common Name(s):
English Karin Bubble-nest Frog, Tiny Bubble-nest Frog
Ixalus parvulus Boulenger, 1893
Philautus parvulus (Boulenger, 1893)
Pseudophilautus parvulus (Boulenger, 1893)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This form is a complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-12-18
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Neang, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rowley, J.L. & Cutajar, T.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from 46-1,500 m asl in eastern Bangladesh (Ghose and Bhuiyan 2012), eastern Myanmar (Boulenger 1983), northern and central Thailand (Taylor 1962, Chan-ard 2003), Peninsular Malaysia (Sukumaran 2003, Grismer et al. 2006), southwestern Cambodia (Ohler et al. 2002, Stuart & Emmett 2006), northern Laos (Stuart 2005), and much of Viet Nam (Inger et al. 1999, Nguyen et al. 2009). Known localities may not represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities extend into adjacent parts of northeastern India as well as southern China. Further surveys in these areas may uncover its presence, and they have been included in the range map associated with this assessment.
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Number of Locations:18
Lower elevation limit (metres):46
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Not much is known about the size and trends of this species' population except that it has been detected in a large number of surveys (Boulenger 1983, Taylor 1962, Inger et al. 1999, Ohler et al. 2002, Chan-ard 2003, Sukumaran 2003, Stuart 2005, Grismer et al. 2006, Stuart and Emmett 2006, Nguyen et al. 2009, Ghose and Bhuiyan 2012), and described as "especially common" at approximately 900-1,500 m on Doi Suthep, Thailand (Taylor 1962). It is likely that ongoing forest loss associated with expanding agriculture throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009) is causing some population declines.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is mainly associated with evergreen forest (Stuart and Emmett 2006, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data), but has also been recorded in grassland with heath forest (Stuart and Emmett 2006). The species has mostly been observed in trees and dense vegetation both away from water (Taylor 1962) and adjacent to streams (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). Much of the species' reproductive biology remains undocumented, however it presumably breeds by direct development (Taylor 1962), as do all other Raorchestes for which the reproductive strategy is known. The species has been observed calling from vegetation in April, May, and July-August in Bangladesh (Ghose and Bhuyan 2012), Cambodia (Stuart and Emmett 2006) and Viet Nam (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data), respectively. Habitat throughout much of this species' range is undergoing a continuing decline in quality and extent due to logging, expanding agriculture and human encroachment (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009 Sodhi et al. 2009).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation due to the effects of rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009). In the Central Highlands of Viet Nam large areas of forest are converted to agricultural land to grow cash crop plantations (e.g. rubber, coffee and tea) (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013). High rates of deforestation for logging, and agricultural encroachment on natural forest are also ongoing in much of Laos and Cambodia (Sodhi et al. 2009). Other causes of habitat loss in south-western Cambodia are the illegal removal of certain tree species for the harvest and refinement of safrole oil, as well as increasing human settlement, both of which are ongoing within protected areas (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009). Commercial logging and palm oil production are particularly implicated as drivers of high deforestation rates across much of Thailand and Malaysia (Sodhi et al. 2009). This species is very likely threatened to some degree by habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is known from a number of protected areas: in Viet Nam it occurs in Pu Hoat Proposed Nature Reserve as well as Pu Mat, Kon Ka Kinh and Tam Dao National Parks (Nguyen et al. 2009, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data); in Cambodia it occurs in Bokor National Park and Phnom Samkos Wildife Sacntuary (Stuart and Emmett 2006, Neang et al. 2010); and in Bangladesh it has been recorded in Khadimnagar National Park (Ghose and Bhuiyan 2012). A large number of other protected areas are included in parts of this species' predicted range; it very likely occurs in many of these also.

Research Needed
In order to ensure the species' long-term survival, the lack of data must be addressed. Research should be carried out to determine its true distribution, relative abundance, life history, and threats.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Raorchestes parvulus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58886A55068080. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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