Gracixalus carinensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Gracixalus carinensis (Boulenger, 1893)
Ixalus carinensis Boulenger, 1893
Kurixalus carinensis (Boulenger, 1893)
Philautus carinensis (Boulenger, 1893)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-11-16
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Nguyen, T.Q.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Cutajar, T. & Rowley, J.L.
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread; it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 459,069 km2, which consists of 10 threat-defined locations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Due to morphological similarity with related species, there is a considerable amount of uncertainty regarding records of this species (eg. Rowley et al. 2011). As per currently accepted data, this species is known from 884-2,020 m asl in eastern Myanmar  (Boulenger 1893), northern Thailand (Chan-ard 2003) and northern Viet Nam (Ohler et al. 2000, Orlov et al. 2002, Nguyen et al. 2009). These are unlikely to represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known locality occur in adjacent parts of intervening northern Laos as well as in southern China, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat as further surveys in these areas are likely to uncover its presence there. This species' estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 459,069 km2, which consists of 10 threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Number of Locations:10
Lower elevation limit (metres):884
Upper elevation limit (metres):2020
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Little is known about the size of this species' population, except that it has been detected in a number of surveys including Ohler et al. (2000), Orlov et al. (2002), and Chan-ard (2003). The species' population trends are unknown. Deforestation continues to affect parts of the species' range (Sodhi et al. 2009), and may be causing declines. Surveys are needed to determine its relative abundance and population trends.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Very little is known about this species' ecology, but it is associated with montane forest (Boulenger 1893, Ohler et al. 2000, Orlov et al. 2002, Chan-ard 2003). The species' reproductive biology in not known, but presumably involves aquatic larval development, as with congeners for which the reproductive strategy is known. Habitat in parts of the species' predicted range is undergoing declines in quality associated with forest loss for the expansion of agricultural land (Sodhi et al. 2009).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest loss and degradation due to the effects of rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009) and recent satellite imagery shows areas of land cleared for agriculture in parts of this species' predicted range. The species is therefore very likely threatened by encroaching agriculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species has been reported from Hoang Lien National Park in Viet Nam (Ohler et al. 2000). A large number of other protected areas are also included in the species’ predicted range within Viet Nam, Lao PDR, Thailand, Myanmar and China.

Conservation Needed
Addressing the lack of data is necessary for ensuring this species' long-term persistence.

Research Needed
Further research on its true distribution, threats, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions, as would confirmation of the specific identity of individuals from throughout its known range.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Gracixalus carinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58827A86212904. . Downloaded on 20 May 2018.
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