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Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA DICROGLOSSIDAE

Scientific Name: Hoplobatrachus tigerinus
Species Authority: (Daudin, 1802)
Common Name(s):
English Indian Bullfrog, Bull Frog, Golden Frog, Tiger Frog, Tiger Peters Frog
Synonym(s):
Dicroglossus tigrinus (Daudin, 1802)
Euphlyctis tigerina (Daudin, 1802)
Limnonectes tigerinus (Daudin, 1802)
Rana tigerina Daudin, 1802
Rana tigrina Merrem, 1820
Rana gracilis variety pulla Stoliczka, 1870
Rana picta Gravenhorst, 1829
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon is now believed to consist of a complex of several cryptic species. Recent ongoing taxonomic research in Sri Lanka, has revealed that Hoplobatrachus tigerinus does not occur in this country and that animals previously assigned to H. tigerinus are misidentifications of H. crassus (K. Manemendra-Arachchi pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Padhye, A., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., de Silva, A., Dutta, S., Kumar Shrestha, T., Bordoloi, S., Papenfuss, T., Anderson, S., Kuzmin, S., Khan, M.S. & Nussbaum, R.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found throughout most wetland areas of India, Bangladesh and much of northern Pakistan, and is recorded from the southern parts of Nepal, and from upper and northern central Myanmar (Smith, 1940; Zug et al., 1998). It has been reported from Afghanistan close to the Khyber Pass (Kullmann 1974), although this report needs to be reconfirmed. The presence in Bhutan of this species needs to be confirmed. Populations in Sri Lanka are now believed to belong to a separate taxon and have not been included in this account. It has also been introduced to the Maldives and Madagascar, where it is expanding its range at low altitudes in the northwest and on the island of Nosy Be. A principally lowland species, it is found at elevations between 25 and 800m asl, over much of its range, although it might occur up to 2,000m asl in Nepal (Dubois, 1976).
Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Bangladesh; India; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan
Introduced:
Madagascar; Maldives
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: At present the species is considered to be locally common throughout much of its South Asian range. However it is predicted that populations might decline in the near future because of habitat loss and water pollution. It is farmed in substantial numbers in Thailand for domestic consumption and export (Pariyanonth and Daorerk, 1995). It is common in Madagascar where it is introduced, and its range is expanding.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly aquatic, inhabiting mostly freshwater wetlands, both natural and artificial (especially paddy fields). It is absent or uncommon in forested areas and coastal regions (Fugler, 1983). It is mostly solitary and nocturnal, inhabiting holes and bushes near permanent water courses and pools (Dutta, 1990). Its diet includes invertebrates, small mammals and birds. Breeding takes place during the monsoon season, when adults congregate at ephemeral rainwater pools. It produces large numbers of eggs (and so has potentially high levels of recruitment), but there are high mortality rates among tadpoles, froglets and adult frogs.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It was once heavily collected for the international frog legs trade. Legal export of this species from the range states of India and Bangladesh has been banned since the mid-1990's. Specimens currently traded under the name H. tigerinus are likely to be confused with specimens of the Southeast Asian congenic H. rugulosus. Loss of wetland habitats through infrastructure development, prolonged drought and water pollution by pesticides and other agrochemicals are now the main threats to the species. It is considered a pest in Madagascar, where it was originally introduced as a source of human food, and it is still harvested for this purpose, but not at a level to contain the spread of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed in Appendix II of CITES. Export for commercial purposes from India and Bangladesh is prohibited by appropriate national legislation. It is included in Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (as amended in 1991). Improved identification of specimens exported from Southeast Asia (including those indicated as being of captive-bred origin) is required to determine whether or not they are H. tigerinus or H. rugulosus. Within India and Bangladesh there is a need to monitor populations of this species over the next five years, to determine current population trends. Protection of this species since the mid-1990's has resulted in a rise in numbers, although populations are still considered to be low. It has been recorded from numerous protected areas throughout its range.

Citation: Padhye, A., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., de Silva, A., Dutta, S., Kumar Shrestha, T., Bordoloi, S., Papenfuss, T., Anderson, S., Kuzmin, S., Khan, M.S. & Nussbaum, R. 2008. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 September 2014.
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