Kaloula pulchra 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Microhylidae

Scientific Name: Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831
Common Name(s):
English Banded Bullfrog, Malaysian Narrowmouth Toad, Ox Frog, Painted Bullfrog, Piebald Digging Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Specimens from Sumatra and Sulawesi need examination to determine whether or not they belong to this species (D. Iskandar pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Kuangyang, L., Zhigang, Y., Haitao, S., Baorong, G., van Dijk, P.P., Iskandar, D., Inger, R.F., Dutta, S., Sengupta, S., Uddin Sarker, S. & Asmat, G.
Reviewer(s): Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Stuart, S.N.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widespread through much of Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. In Southeast Asia it occurs from Myanmar, Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Viet Nam, south to Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo Pontianak), Sulawesi (Makassar, Palu, and Flores) and the islands of Tioman, Phuket, Langkawi and Singapore. It has a fragmented range in India (known to occur in West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Mizoram, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala) and Bangladesh. In China it is known from Yunnan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces, and also Hong Kong and Macau. It has been introduced to Taiwan, Province of China. It is found from sea level up to 750 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
Taiwan, Province of China
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):750
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is generally quite common throughout most of its range.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species commensal with humans that rapidly colonizes urban habitats. It is quite adaptable and was presumably originally a wetland/riverbank/forest edge species that has adapted successfully to agricultural and residential landscapes, although it can still be found in dry forests. It is a nocturnal and fossorial species, breeding in small pools, usually seasonal rain pools, or ponds. It can burrow or climb into shrubby trees.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is consumed in many places, and can sometimes be found in the international pet trade but at levels that are not considered to be a major threat.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is collected for consumption in many places, but this does not appear to have a significant impact on its populations. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It meets several criteria to be considered a vertebrate pest, and an accidentally imported individual was recently intercepted at Perth International Airport, Australia (Tyler and Chapman 2007), while another one was intercepted at Andersen Air Force Base, in Guam (Christy et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures needed for this species at present. Its range overlaps with numerous protected areas.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: Reformatted names of assessor(s), reviewer(s), contributor(s), facilitator(s) and/or compiler(s).

Citation: Kuangyang, L., Zhigang, Y., Haitao, S., Baorong, G., van Dijk, P.P., Iskandar, D., Inger, R.F., Dutta, S., Sengupta, S., Uddin Sarker, S. & Asmat, G. 2004. Kaloula pulchra (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T57855A86163405. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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