|Scientific Name:||Kaloula kalingensis Taylor, 1922|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species concept represents a complex of at least three or four distinct evolutionary lineages (Inger 1954, Diesmos et al. 2002, Brown et al. 2012, Blackburn et al. 2013) and contains several cryptic species (A. Diesmos pers. comm. May 2017).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Mallari, A., Alcala, A., Diesmos, A.C., Gutierrez, B., Balete, D.S., Ubaldo, D., Supsup, C., Rico, E.L., Sy, E., Gee, G., Hampson, K., Afuang, L.E., Diesmos, M., Pedregosa, M., Ong, P., Brown, R., Lagat, R. & Causaren, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Luedtke, J., Neam, K.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is widespread on Luzon Island, and is also found on Polillo, Palaui, and Marinduque Islands in the Philippines where it occurs between 50–1,600 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered common and is ubiquitously encountered in surveys of forested sites (Brown et al. 2012). During 15–25 June 2011, seventeen individuals were recorded at three localities in Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon (Brown et al. 2012). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits lowland lower montane forests, but occasionally is also found in forest edge habitats. It appears to be tolerant of secondary forest habitats and high levels of disturbance, provided that any form of standing tree cover (even invasive bamboo is sufficient; R.M. Brown pers. obs.) remains to provide sites for egg deposition (Brown et al. 2012). It lives and breeds in water-filled tree holes and hollows. Tadpoles have been collected in the same microhabitats.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of the species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||The most significant threat to this species is the deforestation of lower montane and lowland forests for expanding agricultural activities and human settlements, wood collection for firewood and charcoal production; commercial gold mines and limestone quarries are also operating in some areas within the species' range and these activities severely degrade and destroy forest habitat (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).|
The species' range overlaps with the boundaries of several protected areas on Luzon Island and some of these are well-managed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in partnership with local government units. Since the 2004 assessment, in collaboration with various regional academic institutions, NGO-led awareness campaigns have been taking place to educate the public regarding the need to protect remaining forests on Luzon Island, resulting in positive responses by local communities and improved protection for priority species.
Improved enforcement of protected area boundaries and appropriate management practices are required to safeguard the remaining habitat, as well as ongoing awareness campaigns to raise public support.
More information is needed on this species' population size, distribution and trends, and additional taxonomic research is recommended in light of the cryptic species present in this concept.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2018. Kaloula kalingensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T57851A58477977.Downloaded on 23 July 2018.|
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