Megophrys stejnegeri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Megophryidae

Scientific Name: Megophrys stejnegeri (Taylor, 1920)
Common Name(s):
English Mindanao Horned Frog, Southeast Asian Horned Toad
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species was removed from the synonymy of Megophrys montana by Iskandar (1998), where it had been placed previously by Inger (1954).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2017-05-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hobin, L.
Contributor(s): Alcala, A., Mallari, A., Diesmos, A.C., Gutierrez, B., Supsup, C., Balete, D.S., Ubaldo, D., Rico, E.L., Sy, E., Gee, G., Afuang, L.E., Diesmos, M., Pedregosa, M., Ong, P., Brown, R. & Lagat, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Luedtke, J., Neam, K.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution throughout all islands of the Mindanao PAIC and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Dinagat, Leyte, Samar, and many parts of Mindanao, in the southern and eastern islands of the Philippines. It is found from around sea level up to 1,800 m asl (Diesmos et al. 2014). It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is generally common, but its population trend is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This terrestrial species inhabits primary and secondary montane and lowland rainforests and is dependent on mountain streams where it breeds. Individuals of this species are found among leaf litter, or exposed on the forest floor, near tree roots and standing water pools (Plaza and Sanguila 2015). Tadpoles are suspension feeders and prefer quiet pools in streams. It apparently has a wide tolerance of ecological disturbance (Sanguila et al. 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is traded at low levels for the domestic pet trade (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The major threat is the destruction and conversion of both lowland and montane rainforest habitat on Mindanao due to small-scale agricultural activities, large-scale oil palm plantations, wood collection for charcoal production, expanding human settlements, nickel, chromite, and gold mining, and limestone and marble quarrying (eastern Mindanao). In addition, the quality of its stream habitat is subject to pollution due to agricultural effluents, soil erosion, and mine-tailings (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). It is also found in the domestic pet trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
Some subpopulations of this species are protected in national parks, such as Mount Malindang National Park, and other protected areas, including Mount Apo Natural Park. 

Conservation Needed
There is a need for improved protection on Mindanao, Leyte, Samar, and Bohol to protect the remaining forest on these islands.

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, ecology, and threats. Additional taxonomic studies are recommended given this species' widespread distribution (Plaza and Sanguila 2015).

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2018. Megophrys stejnegeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T57583A58477675. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
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