|Scientific Name:||Mantidactylus pauliani|
|Species Authority:||Guibé, 1974|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Crottini, A., Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Scherz, D., Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Luedtke, J. & Hobin, L.|
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 12 km2, its area of occupancy is likely to be less than 10 km2, all individuals are in a single threat-defined location, and the extent of its remaining forest habitat on the Ankaratra Massif is declining under considerable pressure.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is known from a single small area within 443 m of the highest summit (2,643 m asl) of the Ankaratra Massif in central Madagascar at around 2,200 m asl. It has also been recorded from three additional sites east of the summit between 2,000-2,285 m asl (Andreone et al. 2014). Its range map represents its approximate distribution and has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 12 km2.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1974 it was described from a single area and was not recorded again until surveys in 2010-2011 recorded this species (Rabemananjara et al. 2012; Andreone et al. 2014). Due to ongoing declines in the extent and quality of its natural habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is a montane stream micro-endemic, lives and breeds in fast-flowing streams and has a maximum longevity of eight years (Andreone et al. 2014). The Ankaratra Massif "harbours residual threatened montane rainforest fragments, high-altitude savannah and heathland" (Vences et al. 2002 in Andreone et al. 2014) and the species has been recorded from streams in open heathland habitat, forest, and forest with cleared areas (Andreone et al. 2014).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
One of the most threatened amphibians in Madagascar, it lives in a severely degraded area where its habitat is under constant threat from fire (it is burned annually and an arson event swept through part of its range in 2009), illegal logging, overgrazing by livestock, and expanding potato farming. It might also be threatened by the impacts of pollution and siltation of its breeding streams as a result of these activities. As a mountain-top species, it is also potentially at risk from climate change.
Species in this genus have also tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015). Samples from this species from 2010 all tested negative for Bd (Andreone et al. 2014).
The Ankarana Massif Reserve was established by the Madagascan conservation organization Association Vondrona Ivon’ny Fampandrosoanavif (VIF) and with the support of its U.S. partners Amphibian Survival Alliance, Global Wildlife Conservation and Rainforest Trust (Moore 2015). VIF manage the reserve through forest guard units assembled in collaboration with local communities. These units regularly patrol the reserve to stop illegal logging and have effectively decreased logging rates. In addition, local communities are engaged in reforestation efforts intended to improve habitat within the Reserve and amphibian populations on the Massif are subject to ongoing monitoring (A. Crottini pers. comm. February 2016).
Protection of remaining habitat (including important streams) on the Ankaratra Massif is urgently needed. This species has also been assessed through Amphibian Ark's Conservation Needs Assessments as being in needs of Rescue, In Situ Conservation, In Situ Research, Biobanking efforts (Crottini 2015) and Andreone et al. (2014) recommend developing "species-specific know-how" regarding its captive breeding.
Further work is needed to better understand the species life history and determine whether or not the species might survive elsewhere on the Massif. Monitoring is required to determine the population status of the species (Andreone et al. 2014). Further research is also essential to fully understand the distribution, origin, type and virulence of Bd lineages found in Madagascar (Bletz et al. 2015).
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Mantidactylus pauliani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T57509A84175039.Downloaded on 07 December 2016.|
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