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Craugastor ranoides

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA CRAUGASTORIDAE

Scientific Name: Craugastor ranoides
Species Authority: (Cope, 1886)
Synonym(s):
Eleutherodactylus pittieri (Günther, 1900)
Eleutherodactylus ranoides (Cope, 1886)
Hylodes pittieri (Günther, 1900)
Hylodes ranoides (Cope, 1886)
Liohyla pittieri Günther, 1900
Liohyla ranoides (Cope, 1886)
Lithodytes ranoides Cope, 1886
Taxonomic Notes: This species was previously included in the genus Eleutherodactylus (Crawford and Smith 2005). It was removed from the synonymy of Eleutherodactylus rugulosus (Campbell and Savage 2000).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Pounds, J., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Jaramillo, C., Savage, J. & Köhler, G.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population, probably due to chytridiomycosis.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found from the lowlands and premontane slopes from eastern Nicaragua on the Atlantic slope and north-western Costa Rica on the Pacific versant to extreme western Panama (including Isla Escudo de Veraguas), exclusive of the Golfo Dulce region of south-western Costa Rica, at elevations from sea level up to 1,220m asl (Savage 2002).
Countries:
Native:
Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Panama
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It was formerly widespread in Costa Rica but has not been seen in much of its range since 1986. Sites where it was formerly common, such as Volcán Cacao, have been searched repeatedly in the last decade without success. A small population persists in the Río Murciélago, in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, where several individuals were recorded in 1994, 1995, and 2003 (Sasa and Solórzano 1995; M. Sasa unpubl.; Puschendorf et al. 2005). There is nothing known about the populations in Panama, and only a few specimens are known from Nicaragua (though this might well be due to a lack of survey effort).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is associated with small streams principally in lowland and premontane wet forests, although also dry forest with perennial streams, and is often found on rocks and under boulders in the stream. The only known remaining site in Costa Rica is dry forest that has a constant flowing stream (even through the dry season) and has a water temperature higher than other sites in Costa Rica from which it has disappeared. It presumably breeds by direct development.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is generally affected by the destruction of natural forests for agriculture and timber, but this does not explain its disappearance from pristine habitats. Some other species of Craugastor that are associated with streams have undergone dramatic declines and disappearances, possibly due to chytridiomycosis, and so this might be a threat to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In view of the threat of chytridiomycosis, the status of this species, and particularly the surviving population at Río Murciélago, should be closely monitored, and ex-situ populations might need to be established. The species has been recorded from several protected areas in the past.

Citation: Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Pounds, J., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Jaramillo, C., Savage, J. & Köhler, G. 2008. Craugastor ranoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.
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