Pristimantis cruentus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Craugastoridae

Scientific Name: Pristimantis cruentus
Species Authority: (Peters, 1873)
Common Name(s):
English Chiriqui Robber Frog
Eleutherodactylus cruentus (Peters, 1873)
Eleutherodactylus dubitus Taylor, 1952
Eleutherodactylus marshae Lynch, 1964
Hylodes cruentus Peters, 1873
Syrrhophus lutosus Barbour & Dunn, 1921
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This form is probably a complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-06-23
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hobin, L.
Contributor(s): Wetterau, A., Klocke, B., Gratwicke, B., Jaramillo, C., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Fuenmayor, Q. & Ibáñez, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Wetterau, A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species' geographic range is from the humid forests of lowland and premontane zones and lower portion of the lower montane zone from northern Costa Rica to western Panama, from 40-1,800 m asl. There are no records of this species from Colombia although it has been cited as occurring there in some literature.
Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica; Panama
Lower elevation limit (metres): 40
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: While there might be more than one biological species classified in this taxon, with the exception of La Selva where there has been a 3.5% annual decline over 35 years (Whitfield et al. 2007), there are no signs of decline anywhere in the Costa Rica range (Lips 1998, Andrew R. Gray in litt. to Karen Lips 2007 [report on continued presence at Las Tablas]) though it is rare in Guayacan (Kubicki 2008). Pristimantis cruentus is common in San Vito (Santos-Barrera et al. 2007).  The species is surviving at Monteverde (Pounds et al. 1997, Lips 1999), and is present at Las Tablas (Lips 1998, 1999) and Braulio Carrillo National Park (Pushchendorf et al. 2006). It was present even at La Selva, where declines had been reported, as recently as 2010 (Hilje and Mitchell Aide 2012). There is no information on the populations of this species in Panama, besides that it is known to be stable at El Copé (Crawford et al. 2010).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits most forest types including humid lowland and montane forest. It is also found in degraded habitats outside forest. Adults are generally found on low vegetation. It is direct-developing species, and the eggs may be laid in the crevices of tree trunks.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): General habitat loss by the destruction of natural forests for agriculture and logging is a threat. While museum specimens of this species have been found to have the chytrid fungus, the current impact of this pathogen on the species is not known. The species was detected before epizootic chytridiomycosis in Panama in 2006 but was not detected in 2007 (Woodhams et al. 2008). At La Selva, declines seem to be driven by climate-driven reductions in quantity of standing leaf litter (Whitfield et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions 
While there are no specific conservation measures in place, the species has been recorded from many protected areas.
Research Needed
Taxonomic studies are required for the sub-populations in Costa Rica (G. Chaves pers. comm. 2015).

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Pristimantis cruentus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T56535A54349571. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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