Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hylidae

Scientific Name: Smilisca sila
Species Authority: Duellman & Trueb, 1966
Common Name(s):
English Panama Cross-banded Treefrog
Hyla sila (Duellman & Trueb, 1966)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Bolívar, W., Renjifo, J., Jungfer, K., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q. & Bolaños, F.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in the humid lowlands from southwestern Costa Rica to eastern Panama on the Pacific slope, and on the Atlantic versant in central Panama, to northern Colombia and the middle Magdalena Valley. Its range is expanding in Costa Rica. It ranges from sea level up to 500m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Panama
Upper elevation limit (metres): 500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a common species in Panama and Colombia. In Costa Rica it is rare, despite its expanding range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a nocturnal tree frog that inhabits lowland moist and wet forests close to shallow rocky pools, and stream banks. It can survive in secondary forest, but it generally needs good vegetation cover. In Costa Rica, it has been observed in relatively open areas (Federico Bolaños pers. comm.). It is less frequently found in the vegetation overhanging the streams. Benthic tadpoles are found in clear pools and slow-moving water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats are likely to be deforestation for agricultural development, illegal crops, logging, and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has been recorded from many protected areas.

Citation: Bolívar, W., Renjifo, J., Jungfer, K., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Smilisca sila. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T56010A11407012. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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