Osteopilus septentrionalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hylidae

Scientific Name: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril & Bibron, 1841)
Common Name(s):
English Cuban Treefrog, Giant Tree-frog
Hyla dominicensis ssp. insulsa Mittleman, 1950
Hyla dominicensis ssp. septentrionalis Mertens, 1938
Hyla insulsa (Cope, 1863)
Hyla microterodisca Werner, 1921
Hyla schebestana Werner, 1917
Hyla septentrionalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Trachycephalus insulsus Cope, 1863
Trachycephalus marmoratus Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Trachycephalus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
Trachycephalus wrightii Cope, 1863
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-13
Assessor(s): Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz, Beatrice Ibéné, Rafael Joglar, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on Cuba, the Isla de Juventud (Cuba), Archipelago de los Canarreos (Cuba), the Archipelago de Sabana-Camaguey (Cuba), Cayos de San Felipe (Cuba), the Cayman Islands, and the following places in the Bahamas: Little and Great Bahamas Banks, Long Island, Cat Island, Conception Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Crooked-Acklands Bank, and Great Inagua Island. It is introduced on Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (St. Croix, St John, St Thomas), Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Beef Island and Peter Island (British Virgin Islands), the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Florida Keys and mainland Florida (USA), Hawaii (USA), Anguilla, St Martin (France portion, not yet in Netherlands portion), St Barthelemy, Bonaire, and Limon, Costa Rica (Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.). It occurs from sea level up to 1,110m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Cuba
Anguilla; Costa Rica; Guadeloupe; Puerto Rico; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1110
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is an extremely abundant species. It is spreading rapidly, with frequent new island records (Perry and Gerber, 2006).
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It generally inhabits mesic habitats but may be found in xeric habitat in the Bahamas, living in all kinds of disturbed habitats, including towns and houses. It is also present in forests, mangroves and coastal areas. It can also tolerate brackish water. It is found on the ground and on tree trunks. Males call from vegetation near pooled rainwater. Eggs are laid in still water, including pools, marshes, flood pastures, and ditches. It is competing with other species, and predates native amphibians in the wild. It might also be a vector for pathogens.

Breeding events have been found to last only one night and male mating behavior changes from acoustic competition to scramble searching over the breeding event. Most males have similar opportunities to mate with a female, and there doesn't appear to be a direct adaptive benefit for high mating selectivity by females, which can increase the invasive capacity of O. septentrionalis (Vargas Salinas, 2006).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is common in the pet trade. Probably most of the trade is in captive-bred animals.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no threats to this species. The species' diet suggests that it could severely impact native species, and its tadpoles impact those of some native anurans (see Perry and Gerber, 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Citation: Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz, Beatrice Ibéné, Rafael Joglar, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves. 2010. Osteopilus septentrionalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T55811A11368202. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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