|Scientific Name:||Osteopilus septentrionalis|
|Species Authority:||(Duméril & Bibron, 1841)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz, Beatrice Ibéné, Rafael Joglar, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs on Cuba, the Isla de Juventud (Cuba), Archipelago de los Canarreos (Cuba), the Archipelago de Sabana-Camaguey (Cuba), Cayos de San Felipe (Cuba), the Cayman Islands, and the following places in the Bahamas: Little and Great Bahamas Banks, Long Island, Cat Island, Conception Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Crooked-Acklands Bank, and Great Inagua Island. It is introduced on Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (St. Croix, St John, St Thomas), Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Beef Island and Peter Island (British Virgin Islands), the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Florida Keys and mainland Florida (USA), Hawaii (USA), Anguilla, St Martin (France portion, not yet in Netherlands portion), St Barthelemy, Bonaire, and Limon, Costa Rica (Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.). It occurs from sea level up to 1,110m asl.|
Native:Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Cuba
Introduced:Anguilla; Costa Rica; Guadeloupe; Puerto Rico; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is an extremely abundant species. It is spreading rapidly, with frequent new island records (Perry and Gerber, 2006).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It generally inhabits mesic habitats but may be found in xeric habitat in the Bahamas, living in all kinds of disturbed habitats, including towns and houses. It is also present in forests, mangroves and coastal areas. It can also tolerate brackish water. It is found on the ground and on tree trunks. Males call from vegetation near pooled rainwater. Eggs are laid in still water, including pools, marshes, flood pastures, and ditches. It is competing with other species, and predates native amphibians in the wild. It might also be a vector for pathogens.
Breeding events have been found to last only one night and male mating behavior changes from acoustic competition to scramble searching over the breeding event. Most males have similar opportunities to mate with a female, and there doesn't appear to be a direct adaptive benefit for high mating selectivity by females, which can increase the invasive capacity of O. septentrionalis (Vargas Salinas, 2006).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no threats to this species. The species' diet suggests that it could severely impact native species, and its tadpoles impact those of some native anurans (see Perry and Gerber, 2006).|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in many protected areas.|
|Citation:||Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz, Beatrice Ibéné, Rafael Joglar, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves 2010. Osteopilus septentrionalis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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