|Scientific Name:||Hemiphractus bubalus (Jiménez de la Espada, 1871)|
Cerathyla braconnieri Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 "1870"
Cerathyla palmarum Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 "1870"
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This genus has recently been moved from the family Hylidae (Faivovich et al. 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Fernando Castro, Jose Vicente Rueda|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much the majority of its range of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the lower Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Ecuador, Peru and Colombia (Caquetá to Putumayo), from 300-2,000m asl.|
Native:Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a rare species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Individuals have been found in dense cloud forests where it favours perches, being found on the branches of bushes and small trees (Trueb 1974). At Cordillera del Cutucú, Ecuador, specimens have been collected in very wet forest, where the ground and most trees were covered with moss (Duellman and Lynch 1988); it was also collected at the same habitat type in Peru. It is not present in modified habitats. This species reproduces by direct development and the eggs are carried in a pouch on the female's back. It is probably a specialized predator on other frog species that only survives in areas of high frog density.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by forest loss due to infrastructure development for human settlements, logging, and agricultural development (including for the cultivation of crops and the rearing of livestock). Although much forest habitat remains within the range of this species, it is very sensitive to slight habitat alteration and the rate of forest loss within the majority of its range (the Ecuadorian portion) is very high.|
|Conservation Actions:||Its geographic range overlaps with the Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca, Parque Nacional Sumaco Napo-Galeras, and Parque Nacional Sangay, in Ecuador. In Peru it is present in the Zona Reservada Santiago-Comaina.|
|Citation:||Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Fernando Castro, Jose Vicente Rueda. 2004. Hemiphractus bubalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55366A11286360.Downloaded on 21 November 2017.|
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