Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Centrolenidae

Scientific Name: Nymphargus puyoensis
Species Authority: (Flores & McDiarmid, 1989)
Common Name(s):
English Puyo Giant Glass Frog
Centrolene puyoense (Flores & McDiarmid, 1989)
Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid, 1989
Cochranella puyoensis (Flores & McDiarmid, 1989)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species was recently transferred from Centrolene to Cochranella (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2009-09-16
Assessor(s): Coloma, L.A., Ron, S., Cisneros-Heredia, D. & Angulo, A.
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Cox, N.

Listed as Endangered in view of its extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km², with all individuals occurring in severely fragmented habitat, and a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from four localities clustered in two separate areas in the provinces of Napo, Orellana and Pastaza, Ecuador, between ca. 400-1,000 m asl (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006). It is apparently endemic to the foothill evergreen forests of the central section of the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006). Its extent of occurrence, excluding degraded unsuitable areas, is estimated to be close to 3,700 km² (D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm. September 2009).
Countries occurrence:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 500
Lower elevation limit (metres): 400
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is only known from a handful of specimens, and it is considered to be a rare species (D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm. September 2009).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in lower sub-montane forest. The holotype was collected in the evening, after it had rained the previous day and night (Flores and McDiarmid 1989). Reproduction is presumed to be via eggs laid on vegetation overhanging rivulets or streams, with the tadpoles developing in water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction and degradation due to agriculture and logging is the primary threat to this species. By 1996, the forest at the type locality had been cleared. The remaining vegetation formation where this species is found has been reduced from a historical area of ca 13,200 km² due to intense anthropogenic activities, with much of the remaining forest in close proximity to areas of high human pressure (i.e., deforestation, agricultural activities and water pollution), and only about 10% of the remaining foothill evergreen forests are protected within the Ecuadorian Protected Areas System (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is not recorded from any protected area. Survey work is urgently required to determine the current population status of this species and the precise limits of its range. In addition, the few areas that still contain foothill evergreen forests require urgent conservation action (D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm. September 2009).

Citation: Coloma, L.A., Ron, S., Cisneros-Heredia, D. & Angulo, A. 2009. Nymphargus puyoensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54936A11229075. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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