Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella spinulosa
Species Authority: (Wiegmann, 1834)
Common Name(s):
English Warty Toad
Bufo arequipensis Vellard, 1959
Bufo flavolineatus Vellard, 1959
Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann, 1834
Bufo spinulosus subspecies papillosus Gallardo, 1965
Bufo trifolium Tschudi, 1845
Rhinella spinulosus Wiegmann, 1834
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: We follow Córdova (1999) in treating Rhinella arequipensis as a variant phenotype of Rhinella spinulosa, and Bufo flavolineatus and Bufo trifolium as junior synonyms of Rhinella spinulosa. However, more than one species might be involved in Rhinella spinulosa. The form Rhinella spinulosa papillosa of Chile and Argentina is often considered distinct, but is not treated as such here.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-17
Assessor(s): Ariadne Angulo, Ignacio De la Riva, Jesús Córdova-Santa Gadea, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Carmen Úbeda, Esteban Lavilla, Boris Blotto
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Andean slopes of Argentina, Chile (altiplano in the North to the southern Nothofagus region), Bolivia, and Peru (regions of Puno, Cusco, Junin, and Huánuco); also present in parts of Argentinian Patagonia (B. s. papillosus). It has a wide altitudinal range of sea level (Azapa, Arica, Chile) to 5,100m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile; Peru
Upper elevation limit (metres): 5100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is generally abundant where it occurs.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In the Andes the species is present in scrubland and grassland. In the more southern parts of its range it is found in forested areas. Breeding takes place in temporary ponds, altiplano lagoons and slow flowing streams. Has been recorded from arable areas.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this widespread species; there are some localized declines through the use of agrochemicals and over collection for educational use (dissections) at Universities. It is used for food and medicine in central Peru. In Chile it is threatened by hydroelectric dams, mining activities and water pollution.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No specific conservation measures are required. In Chile it is suggested that Environmental impact reports should be undertaken in order to protect breeding areas. Occurs in many protected areas in Argentina and Chile. In Peru it is believed to occur in Parque Nacional del Huascarán, Huayllay National Sanctuary, Junín National Reserve, Chacamarca Historical Sanctuary, Alto Cañete Cochas Pachacayo, Apurimac and Aymara Lupaca Reserved Zones. In Bolivia it is known from Sajama, Ulla Ulla and Eduardo Avaroa protected areas.

Citation: Ariadne Angulo, Ignacio De la Riva, Jesús Córdova-Santa Gadea, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Carmen Úbeda, Esteban Lavilla, Boris Blotto. 2010. Rhinella spinulosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54763A11186587. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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