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Incilius occidentalis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Incilius occidentalis
Species Authority: (Camerano, 1879)
Common Name(s):
English Pine Toad
Synonym(s):
Bufo monksiae Cope, 1879
Bufo occidentalis Camerano, 1879
Bufo occidentalis Camerano, 1879
Taxonomic Notes: This form is a complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-08
Assessor(s): Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela, Paulino Ponce-Campos
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
History:
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs from the Central Mexican Plateau, to the west in northern Colima and north-central Sinaloa, including northwestern, central and eastern Michoacán, central and southern Jalisco, northwestern Guerrero and Oaxaca, and from central Mexico to the east into south-central Puebla, Tlaxcala and Veracruz, Mexico. It can be found between 610-2,400 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Mexico
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This is one of the most common toads in Mexico, maintaining healthy populations along its range.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species lives in a wide variety of habitats, from lowland xeric scrubs and deciduous forest to coniferous and oak forests. It is also recorded in disturbed environments. It breeds in streams.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Desiccation, alteration and pollution of rivers and smaller streams are the main threats to this species, as it requires the presence of permanent, clean, shallow water.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The preservation of natural ecosystems including the river systems can guarantee the survival of this species. It occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range.

Citation: Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela, Paulino Ponce-Campos 2010. Incilius occidentalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.
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