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Incilius melanochlorus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Incilius melanochlorus
Species Authority: (Cope, 1877)
Common Name(s):
English Dark Green Toad, West Forest Toad
Synonym(s):
Bufo melanochlorus Cope, 1877
Taxonomic Notes: Pacific slope populations have recently been described as a separate species, I. aucoinae (O'Neill and Mendelson, 2004). However, records of Incilius melanochlorus from the Pacific slope remain, and these need further investigation to confirm their identity (Federico Bolaños and Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-10-14
Assessor(s): Bolaños, F., Chaves, G. & Sunyer, J.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 20,000 km2, it is common and somewhat adaptable with a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
History:
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in the lowlands and middle elevations of the Atlantic slopes and Cordillera Central of Costa Rica, at elevations of 2-1,080m asl. It has recently been recorded from extreme southaeastern Nicaragua (Köhler et al., 2004).
Countries:
Native:
Costa Rica; Nicaragua
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is widespread and regularly encountered during breeding periods. It disappeared from Monteverde in the late 1980s and then reappeared in the 1990s (Pounds et al. 1997).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in lowland moist and wet forests and the lower portion of premontane wet forest. It is most likely not very tolerant of either canopy removal of forest or alteration and/or siltation of breeding streams. Other species in this clade are highly intolerant of such impacts. It breeds in large streams and is sometimes encountered on the forest floor.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Alteration of streams, including pollution is a threat to this species. Chytridiomycosis might be a future threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in several National Parks and other protected areas, including La Selva, Monteverde and Reserva Indo-Maíz. Population monitoring is recommended in case of outbreaks of chytridiomycosis and/or other diseases. Further studies are needed into the identity of populations allocated to this species from the Pacific coast (Federico Bolaños and Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.).

Citation: Bolaños, F., Chaves, G. & Sunyer, J. 2010. Incilius melanochlorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2014.
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