Rhinella margaritifera 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English South American Common Toad
Spanish Sapo Crestado
Bufo margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768)
Bufo margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768)
Rhinella margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon is a complex of more than one species. Populations in Panama refer to an unnamed species in the Rhinella margaritifera complex.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-12-01
Assessor(s): Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Débora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Enrique La Marca, Santiago Ron, Marinus Hoogmoed
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This is a species complex that occurs throughout the Amazon Basin of South America, the Guianas, and is also present in central Panama and the eastern lowlands and cordilleras of Panama, as well as in Gorgona Island, Colombia. Specimens recorded from the west coast of Ecuador are believed to refer to another species and are not mapped here. It is present from sea level to 2,400m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is common throughout most countries but is uncommon in Colombia.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Terrestrial and nocturnal toad found in primary and secondary lowland, premontane and montane tropical moist forest (including terra firme and seasonally flooded forest). Also present in open areas. In Gorgona Island its distribution appears to be influenced by the understory cover (Urbina-C. and Londoño-M. , 2003). This species is an explosive breeder in temporary pools and streams. Males call along banks of watercourses. It is a very generalist species that can be found in disturbed areas.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is a widespread species with large areas of suitable habitat remaining. There is some localized habitat loss to general human activities such as agriculture (crops, livestock etc.). It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in protected areas throughout its range.

Citation: Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Débora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Enrique La Marca, Santiago Ron, Marinus Hoogmoed. 2010. Rhinella margaritifera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54701A11185916. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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