Rhinella granulosa 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella granulosa
Species Authority: (Spix, 1824)
Common Name(s):
English Common Lesser Toad
Bufo granulosus (Spix, 1824)
Bufo granulosus (Spix, 1824)
Bufo granulosus subspecies humboldti Gallardo, 1965
Rhinella granulosus (Spix, 1824)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Considerable evidence suggests that this nominal species is composed of several biological species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-12-01
Assessor(s): Débora Silvano, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca, Patricia Narvaes, Ismael di Tada, Diego Baldo, Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Jerry Hardy
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs throughout much of the Amazonian Basin, from Western Pacific lowlands, central Panama and eastern lowlands adjacent to central Panama, through the Guianas, south through the Orinoco and Caribbean regions of Colombia, Margarita Island (Venezuela), Bolivian lowlands, throughout much of Brazil, northwestern Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is not present in Trinidad and Tobago, Ecuador, Peru or Uruguay. Altitudinal range is up to 1,500m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana; Guyana; Panama; Paraguay; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This is a very common species.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This taxon mainly inhabits open areas, savannahs, forests, river shorelines, and reproduces explosively in permanent and temporary waterbodies. By day, specimens hide in holes in the ground. Its presence in forests is apparently due to colonization of intervened habitats along roads and penetration tracks; it has been reported from urban areas in Bolivia. Breeding and larval development takes place in ponds. It can be found breeding in very small and shallow puddles (Lynch, 2006). Time of larvae development is 30 days. It feeds on ants and termites.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is in protected areas throughout most of its range.

Citation: Débora Silvano, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca, Patricia Narvaes, Ismael di Tada, Diego Baldo, Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Jerry Hardy. 2010. Rhinella granulosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54655A11182500. . Downloaded on 24 May 2016.
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