Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius gemmifer
Species Authority: (Taylor, 1940)
Common Name(s):
English Jeweled Toad
Spanish Sapo Joya
Bufo gemmifer Taylor, 1940
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species is currently under taxonomic review.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Endangered, in view of its extent of occurrence of less than 5,000km2 and area of occupancy of less than 500km2, with all individuals within a very restricted area in Guerrero, Mexico, and continuing degradation of its forest habitat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from central coastal Guerrero, Mexico, in north-western Acapulco city.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is thought to be rare.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The primary habitat is xeric and deciduous forest, and it has never been recorded out of the lowlands near Acapulco. It is a stream-breeding amphibian.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is habitat loss due to agricultural expansion, wood extraction, and the expansion of plantations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Protection of the suburban and tropical dry areas around Acapulco represents the only chance for the survival of this species. It is protected by Mexican law under the "Special Protection" category (Pr).

Citation: Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela. 2004. Incilius gemmifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54650A11181587. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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