Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius fastidiosus
Species Authority: (Cope, 1875)
Common Name(s):
English Pico Blanco Toad
Bufo caerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Bufo coerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Bufo fastidiosus (Cope, 1875)
Cranophryne fastidiosa (Cope, 1875)
Cranopsis fastidiosus Cope, 1875
Nannophryne coerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Nannophryne fastidiosa (Cope, 1875)
Ollotis coerulescens Cope, 1875
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C. & Fuenmayor, Q.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, based on observed declines in the number of mature individuals, shrinkage in Extent of Occurrence and quality of habitat, and the probable impacts of pathogens (possibly chytrdiomycosis).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs on both slopes of the southern Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and the Atlantic slope of immediately adjacent Panama, from 760-2,100m asl (Savage 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Costa Rica; Panama
Lower elevation limit (metres): 760
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species was once abundant in Costa Rica, but it has undergone marked declines since the 1980s. There is no information available on the population size or abundance of this species in Panama, but it is presumed to have declined.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Its habitat is premontane and lower montane rainforest. It is a diurnal terrestrial species that is largely fossorial, and has been excavated from leaf-litter along stream banks in August. Juveniles have been found on rocky stream margins throughout the year. This species is an explosive breeder, with reproduction taking place in ephemeral pools after heavy rain in late April to May; eggs are laid in the shallow pools (Savage 2002).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main cause of the population decline is likely to be chytridiomycosis. In addition, there is general habitat loss across the range due to agriculture and timber extraction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is known to occur in Parque Internacional La Amistad, a transboundary protected area between Panama and Costa Rica. Given the threat of chytridiomycosis, the implementation of a disease management and captive-breeding programme is recommended.

Citation: Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C. & Fuenmayor, Q. 2008. Incilius fastidiosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T54635A11179196. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided