Incilius fastidiosus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Incilius fastidiosus
Species Authority: (Cope, 1875)
Common Name(s):
English Pico Blanco Toad
Bufo caerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Bufo coerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Bufo fastidiosus (Cope, 1875)
Cranophryne fastidiosa (Cope, 1875)
Cranopsis fastidiosus Cope, 1875
Nannophryne coerulescens (Cope, 1875)
Nannophryne fastidiosa (Cope, 1875)
Ollotis coerulescens Cope, 1875

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C. & Fuenmayor, Q.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last three generations, based on observed declines in the number of mature individuals, shrinkage in Extent of Occurrence and quality of habitat, and the probable impacts of pathogens (possibly chytrdiomycosis).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs on both slopes of the southern Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and the Atlantic slope of immediately adjacent Panama, from 760-2,100m asl (Savage 2002).
Possibly extinct:
Costa Rica; Panama
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species was once abundant in Costa Rica, but it has undergone marked declines since the 1980s. There is no information available on the population size or abundance of this species in Panama, but it is presumed to have declined.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Its habitat is premontane and lower montane rainforest. It is a diurnal terrestrial species that is largely fossorial, and has been excavated from leaf-litter along stream banks in August. Juveniles have been found on rocky stream margins throughout the year. This species is an explosive breeder, with reproduction taking place in ephemeral pools after heavy rain in late April to May; eggs are laid in the shallow pools (Savage 2002).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main cause of the population decline is likely to be chytridiomycosis. In addition, there is general habitat loss across the range due to agriculture and timber extraction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is known to occur in Parque Internacional La Amistad, a transboundary protected area between Panama and Costa Rica. Given the threat of chytridiomycosis, the implementation of a disease management and captive-breeding programme is recommended.

Citation: Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C. & Fuenmayor, Q. 2008. Incilius fastidiosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.
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