|Scientific Name:||Rhinella ceratophrys|
|Species Authority:||(Boulenger, 1882)|
Bufo ceratophrys Boulenger, 1882
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Almendáriz, A., La Marca, E., Rueda-Almonacid, J., Coloma, L.A. & Ron, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Sharp, D. & Buzzard, P.|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species has a wide distribution in the upper Amazon; it is known from eastern Ecuador; eastern Colombia (Amazonia and Vaupés); Marahuaca, Venezuela and Iquitos, Peru. In Venezuela, it is known from a single juvenile specimen from Temiche, Cerro Marahuaca, Amazonas State (La Marca 1992). It has been recorded at elevations of up to 1,350 m asl. It has only been collected once in Ecuador. It also occurs at Serra da Neblina, Amazonas, and Brazil. The extent of occurrence is 997,450 km2.|
Native:Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common in Colombia but rare elsewhere, although may be understudied in some areas. Overall the population is stable.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives in old and second growth lowland tropical rainforest and it is found on the ground in primary forest (Rodríguez and Duellman 1994). It reproduces in small rivers and temporary and permanent streams.|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation for wood harvest is a threat to this species.|
This species occurs in several protected areas.
In the face of some deforestation within this species range, further site management is required.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Rhinella ceratophrys. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54607A61393455.Downloaded on 17 August 2017.|
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