Ingerophrynus biporcatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Ingerophrynus biporcatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Common Name(s):
English Crested Toad, Double Crested Toad
Bufo biporcatus Gravenhorst, 1829
Bufo cavator Barbour, 1911
Taxonomic Notes: Records of this species from mainland Southeast Asia are probably Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Djoko Iskandar, Mumpuni
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species, endemic to Indonesia, is found in the southern part of Sumatra, Java, Madura, Bali, Lombok and it has been introduced to Sulawesi. Its occurrence in mainland Southeast Asia is uncertain. Records from Peninsular Malaysia (Berry, 1975) probably refer to Bufo quadriporcatus or Bufo parvus. It is a low altitude species, occurring up to 700m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is abundant in forested regions, but much less so in secondary and degraded habitats. It is common on Lombok but it is decreasing on Bali following the introduction of Bufo melanostictus. It is spreading on Sulawesi.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in lowland forest, degraded forest, and tree plantations, but can also be found around towns in Bali and Lombok. The introduced animals on Sulawesi occur near towns. It breeds in slow-flowing streams where the larvae also develop.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to this species is habitat loss. Populations outside forested areas might be decreasing where Bufo melanostictus has been introduced. On Java the species is decreasing generally.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in several protected areas in Java and Sumatra.

Citation: Djoko Iskandar, Mumpuni. 2004. Ingerophrynus biporcatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54588A11156606. . Downloaded on 27 April 2018.
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