Phrynoidis asper 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Phrynoidis asper (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Common Name(s):
English Java Toad, Asian Giant Toad, River Toad, Rough Toad
Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829
Nectes obscurus Barbour, 1904
Phrynoidis aspera Gravenhorst, 1829 [orth. error]
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-06-20
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Iskandar, D., van Dijk, P.P. & Inger, R.F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Absolon, D.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found from Myanmar (Kyaik Ti Yo National Park in Mon State), through western Thailand (Tenasserim) and Malaysia (including Penang and Tioman) to Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kepulanuan Riau Islands, Kalimantan, Natuna Besar and southwest Sulawesi, where it is introduced) and Borneo (Brunei Darussalam and Malaysian Borneo). It is absent from Singapore and Phuket. It occurs from lowlands up to 1,200 m asl (and up to 1,400 m asl in Sumatra).
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Thailand
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Its abundance throughout its range varies greatly. It can be present and abundant, present but uncommon, or absent from forests that appear roughly the same.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In Borneo it is apparently confined to the banks of rainforest streams and rivers throughout its life cycle and has been recorded only from heavily forested areas. It has not been reported from disturbed or heavily logged forests. Its larvae live on the bottom of riffles and rapids. In Sumatra and Java it is found in rivers or along small streams in various habitats, from primary rainforest to degraded areas and even near cities. On these islands, the species can tolerate a considerable amount of pollution and is still abundant where other species have disappeared.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is eaten by local people in Sabah and parts of Peninsular Malaysia.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Borneo the destruction of large portions of the lowland forests and the reduction of remaining forests into fragmented mosaic are the principal threats. On Borneo, deforestation has an immediate impact on larval development through the siltation of streams. However, in some other places (especially Java) it breeds in polluted rivers in cities.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas. In Borneo the protection of large areas of rainforest in Kalimantan and Sarawak is needed. In Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia this species inhabits almost every protected forest area. It is also protected by the WARPA 1992 law of Thailand.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Phrynoidis asper. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T54579A62062983. . Downloaded on 25 April 2018.
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