Phrynoidis aspera


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Phrynoidis aspera
Species Authority: (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Common Name(s):
English Asian Giant Toad, River Toad, Rough Toad
Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829
Nectes obscurus Barbour, 1904
Phrynoidis asper Gravenhorst, 1829

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor(s): Robert Inger, Djoko Iskandar, Peter Paul van Dijk
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from Kyaik Ti Yo National Park in Mon State, Myanmar, through western Thailand, Tenasserim and Malaysia (including Penang and Tioman) to Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Natuna Besar and southwest Sulawesi (where it is introduced)), and Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. It is absent from Singapore, Phuket and other islands. It occurs from lowlands up to 1,200m asl (up to 1,400m asl in Sumatra).
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its abundance throughout its range varies greatly. It can be present and abundant, present but uncommon, or absent from forests that appear roughly the same.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In Borneo it is apparently confined to the banks of rainforest streams and rivers throughout its life cycle, and has been recorded only from heavily forested areas. It has not been reported from disturbed or heavily logged forests. Its larvae live on the bottom of riffles and rapids. In Sumatra and Java it is found in rivers or along small streams in various habitats, from primary rainforest to degraded areas and even near cities. On these islands, the species can tolerate a considerable amount of pollution and is still abundant where other species have disappeared.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Borneo the destruction of large portions of the lowland forests and the reduction of remaining forests into fragmented mosaic are the principal threats. On Borneo, deforestation has an immediate impact on larval development through the siltation of streams. However, in some other places (especially Java) it breeds in polluted rivers in cities. In Sabah and parts of Peninsular Malaysia, it is eaten by the local people.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas. In Borneo the protection of large areas of rainforest in Kalimantan and Sarawak is needed. In Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia this species inhabits almost every protected forest area. It is also protected by the WARPA 1992 law of Thailand.

Citation: Robert Inger, Djoko Iskandar, Peter Paul van Dijk 2004. Phrynoidis aspera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.
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