Rhinella arunco 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella arunco
Species Authority: (Molina, 1782)
Common Name(s):
English Concepcion Toad
Spanish Sapo de rulo
Bufo arunco (Molina, 1782)
Bufo arunco (Molina, 1782)
Bufo chilensis Tschudi, 1838
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-07-09
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Veloso, A., Charrier, A., Correa, C., Soto, C., Velez, C., Lobos, G., Nunez, H. & Mendez, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L. & Superina, M.
Listed as Near Threatened because, despite its wide distribution, habitat quality and extent have declined significantly in the past 10 years (and even more in previous decades). Droughts, invasive species, and pollution affect this species and have led to a population decline in the range of 20-25% over the past 10 years. Hence, the species almost qualifies for listing as Vulnerable under criterion A2.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1994 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a wide distribution from Coquimbo to Arauco Gulf, Chile, at elevations of 0-1,500 m asl. It has an extent of occurrence of 87,243 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Chile (Biobío, Coquimbo, Maule, O'Higgins, Santiago, Valparaíso)
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is locally abundant, with thousands of larvae at some sites. However, a population decline in the range of 20-25% has occurred over the past 10 years due to the decline in habitat quality and extent.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs near rivers, streams, reservoirs and ponds. Adults hide in small holes or under stones during the daytime. At night they can be found on land, relatively far from water sources. It reproduces in water near where it lives. The tadpoles are free swimming. There is hybridization with R. atacamensis in the Coquimbo and Valparaíso regions (Correa et al. 2013).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species was previously collected to be used for teaching anatomy, but this is not the case any more.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction is a threat to this species, as is water pollution caused by agriculture, for example pine plantations, agricultural crops and cattle. Surface water is diverted for human consumption, agriculture and timber plantations. Droughts also affect this species. It occurs in one of the most populated areas of Chile. Exotic fish and Xenopus laevis probably predate on this frog.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
The species occurs in several protected areas. 

Conservation Needed
The prevention of water pollution is needed.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Rhinella arunco. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54577A79810607. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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