|Scientific Name:||Rhinella achalensis|
|Species Authority:||(Cei, 1972)|
Bufo achalensis Cei, 1972
Bufo achalensis Cei, 1972
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Esteban Lavilla, Ismael di Tada, Chris J. Reading|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Near Threatened because its Extent of Occurrence is not much greater than 20,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat are probably declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the high plateau (Sierra Grande) of Córdoba and San Luis Provinces, Argentina, at 1,600-2,200m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common within its limited range. The population was apparently stable through 2002.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It occurs in rocky outcrops in montane grasslands and reproduces in mountain streams during the final snowfalls of late August. Free-living larvae develop in these streams, and can occur below ice.
Adults and juveniles are often found in close proximity of the breeding site stream. Juveniles and adults select granite outcrops after the breeding season and avoid the heavily grazed areas. Adults also select the stream and use tall tussock grassland in proportion to its availability. Juveniles use loose, flat, relatively small stones as shelters, while adults use larger rocks (Jofré et al., 2007). Some habitat disturbance is tolerated.
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are habitat loss due to extensive cattle ranching and the pollution of water sources by cattle. Some populations might also be declining due to fires. In addition, cattle affect larval survivorship directly by trampling, and indirectly through sediment deposition at the breeding sites, resulting from increased stream bank erosion. Future conservation management plans for the species should include the protection of the breeding sites and the surrounding terrestrial area (Jofré et al., 2007).|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in Parque Nacional Condorito and the Reserva Hídrica Provincial de Pampa de Achala.|
|Citation:||Esteban Lavilla, Ismael di Tada, Chris J. Reading 2010. Rhinella achalensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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