Atelopus tricolor 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Atelopus tricolor
Species Authority: Boulenger, 1902
Common Name(s):
English Three-colored Stubfoot Toad, Three-coloured Harlequin Toad
Atelopus rugulosus Noble, 1921
Atelopus willimani Donoso-Barros, 1969
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: Reynolds and Foster (1992) indicated that Atelopus rugulosus is a synonym of A. tricolor. Subsequently, Lötters and De la Riva (1998) confirmed this and pointed out that in evaluating the types of A. rugulosus from south-east Peru, and A. wilimani from Bolivia, both are synonyms of A. tricolor.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3ce ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Antonio Salas, Roberto Ibáñez, Alessandro Catenazzi, Juan Carlos Chaparro-Auza, Ariadne Angulo, Steffen Reichle, Jörn Köhler, Ignacio De la Riva, Stefan Lötters, Claudia Cortez, Wilfredo Arizabal
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Vulnerable because of a projected population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the next ten years, inferred from declines in other high altitude Atelopus species in the same region, probably due to chytridiomycosis.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the eastern Andes in Peru and Bolivia, at elevations of 600-2,500m asl. The type locality is the Marcapata Valley in Peru, in the Amazonian slopes of the eastern Andes (south-eastern Cusco Department). Other Peruvian records are from areas close to Puno Department, at 1,700-2,100m asl (Duellman 1979, Köhler 2000a). In Bolivia there are records from La Paz Department, in the Yungas region, and south in the Chapare region, Cochabamba Department, eastern slopes of the Andes (Fugler 1984, De la Riva 1990, Reynolds and Foster 1992, Köhler 2000a). The larval description of A. tricolor comes from 12 samples from Paucartambo-Atalaya, 68km (by road) north-east of Union Bridge, at Tachila River, 1,700m asl, Cusco Department, Peru; and five specimens from 40km north Caranavi, Buena Vista Hills, Nor Yungas Province, La Paz Department, Bolivia (Lavilla et al. 1997).
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Peru
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is still common within its range, and the declines associated with other species of Atelopus have not yet been noted in this species. It has been recorded as recently as 2003.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits wet primary montane forest, corresponding to the Yungas Forest (De la Riva et al. 2000, Köhler 2000a). Breeding takes place in streams. Köhler (2000a) observed this species perching, at night, at 0.3-1.2m elevation, in vegetation in disturbed primary forest, and secondary growth along roadsides. Males call in small groups of 4-10 individuals.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats are habitat loss, due to small-holder farming activities (coffee, coca, chili peppers), and pollution, as a result of increased stream sedimentation. Chytridiomycosis has yet to be found in this species, but is a potential major threat in the future. Introduced predatory trout might be a threat in some areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Bolivia, it is present in the Parque Nacional Carrasco, Parque Nacional Madidi and Pilon Lajas. In Peru, it is present in Manu Biosphere Reserve. Continued population monitoring is required, especially in light of the potential threat of chytridiomycosis.

Citation: Antonio Salas, Roberto Ibáñez, Alessandro Catenazzi, Juan Carlos Chaparro-Auza, Ariadne Angulo, Steffen Reichle, Jörn Köhler, Ignacio De la Riva, Stefan Lötters, Claudia Cortez, Wilfredo Arizabal. 2004. Atelopus tricolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54559A11167505. . Downloaded on 31 May 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided