Atelopus mucubajiensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Atelopus mucubajiensis
Species Authority: Rivero, 1974
Common Name(s):
English Mucubaji Stubfoot Toad
Spanish Sapito Arlequin De Mucubaji
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ace; B2ab(v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2006-02-28
Assessor(s): Enrique La Marca, Suleima Santiago, Stefan Lötters, Juan Elías García-Pérez, César Luis Barrio Amorós
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last ten years, inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population (probably due to chytridiomycosis); and because its Area of Occupancy is less than 10 km2, all individuals are in a single location, and there is continuing decline in the number of mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a very restricted distribution of only a few square kilometres at the type locality, in the Páramo de Mucubají, in the Sierra de Santo Domingo, Venezuelan Andes. It has an altitudinal range of 2,300-3,500m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a very rare species. This is the only Venezuelan Andean amphibian for which an ongoing population monitoring programme exists. The population seems to have experienced a drastic decline in the last 15 years or so, to the point that no individuals of this species were recorded since 1993 (adults) or 1994 (larvae), until recent surveys confirmed that a few individuals (a total of 23 encountered) continue to survive in the wild (Barrio-Amorós 2004).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is an inhabitant of páramo and cloud forest, the highest environments in the Venezuelan Andes, resembling alpine tundra, but with daily temperature extremes. It is usually found within grasses and frailejones (Espeletia spp.), and along streams. It probably lives in the shrubs of the sub-páramo environment. It is photophilic and lays egg chains in streams, where the tadpoles also develop.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection was confirmed for this species in two different studies (Lampo et al. 2006a, 2006b). Introduced trout, introduced conifers, fires caused by humans, over collection, and agriculture and infrastructure development for human settlement are all major threats. Severe dry periods have been associated to the declines experienced in populations of Atelopus mucubajiensis. (Lampo et al. 2006; Santiago-Paredes and La Marca 2006). The extreme dry events are thought to have favoured the infection and propagation of chytridiomycosis, which, in synergy with other factors, could be held responsible for the observed population declines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Most of the range of this species is within the Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada. A new monitoring project for this species was recently begun ( In view of the threat of chytridiomycosis, an ex-situ population might need to be established.

Citation: Enrique La Marca, Suleima Santiago, Stefan Lötters, Juan Elías García-Pérez, César Luis Barrio Amorós. 2010. Atelopus mucubajiensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54529A11162274. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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