Rhaebo colomai 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhaebo colomai (Hoogmoed, 1985)
Common Name(s):
English Carchi Andes Toad
Andinophryne colomai Hoogmoed, 1985
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2016-08-05
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hobin, L.
Contributor(s): Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Mueses-Cisneros, J.J., Coloma, L.A., Yánez-Muñoz, M., Bejarano-Muñoz, P., Gutierrez, P. & Ron, S.R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): NatureServe
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 876 km2, the population is severely fragmented, its occurs in three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in its EOO and the extent and quality of its habitat throughout its range.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species was previously only known from two localities in the province of Carchi, northwestern Ecuador (Cabacera del Rio Baboso and Chical). It is now also been recorded from the department of Nariño, southwestern Colombia (Reserva Río Ñambí), which is its first country record (Murillo-Pacheco et al. 2005). It has been recorded between 1,180–1,500 m asl (Hoogmoed 1985 and 1989, Ron et al. 2015). There have been no records within the Ecuadorian range since 1984 and, for the purposes of this assessment, this portion of its range is excluded from the extent of occurrence (EOO) calculation. Its EOO is 876 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia (Colombia (mainland))
Possibly extinct:
Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland))
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:3Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Lower elevation limit (metres):1180
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species has not been found at both Ecuadorian localities, where it has not been recorded since September 1984. Subsequent visits to the type locality have failed to find any individuals. However in Colombia, at Río Ñambí, it remains common (individuals are seen every day), although they are restricted to old growth and secondary forests (Mueses-Cisneros 2008, P. Gutierrez pers. comm. 2016). This subpopulation is estimated to contain 900 mature individuals (P. Gutierrez pers. comm. 2016). The population is severely fragmented.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:900
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The holotype was collected on a branch some 50 cm above the ground in the forest of a small creek at night (Hoogmoed 1985). A male was collected at night sitting on a tree trunk in a creek, while a female was collected in the afternoon on the forest floor near a creek (Hoogmoed 1989). It lives in secondary forest, over fallen logs, cracks in rocks, bushes and branches or leaves of trees adjacent to streams. It is a tree species and can be found active during the day or night (Varela-Jaramillo et al. 2015, Hoogmoed 1989). It occurs in evergreen foothill forest and premontane rainforests. In Ecuador, annual precipitation at headwaters of the Baboso river is 3,394 mm and at Chical 2,610 mm; with mean annual temperature between 20.5–22.4 °C, respectively; in Colombia, annual precipitation at Río Ñambí is > 7,100 mm; mean annual temperature is 19.3±1.59 °C (range 17.1–19.7 °C). At Río Ñambí, this species is restricted to old growth secondary forests. Individuals are observed at night perched on fallen logs, rock crevices, and on shrub or tree branches or leaves along the margins of small streams and inside the forest. Perch height of the active individuals was on average 0.87 m above ground (range 0.10–3.96 m; n = 42), with adults (mean = 1.28 m, range 0.35–3.96 m, n = 21) generally perching higher than younger individuals (mean = 0.48 m, range 0.10–1.34 m, n = 19). On individual (not collected) was observed perching on epiphytic Araceae ca 4 m high. Amplexus and egg clutches remain unknown. One adult female released a yellowish-orange secretion when captured.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The greatest threat is habitat change, fragmentation and loss, especially due to expansion of the agricultural frontier, logging and mining. Their habitat is largely fragmented and its destruction is continuous. The type locality has been severely impacted by habitat destruction as a result of agriculture and logging. In addition, spraying of herbicides in Colombia to control crops is polluting the species' habitat. The Colombian locality is a natural reserve, but the area over which this species has been recorded at Río Ñambí is small (0.48 km2 - Ron et al. 2015). Outside of the reserve, the habitat is severely threatened by illicit crops and ongoing fumigation to eliminate them.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is known to occur at one private protected area in Colombia (Río Ñambí), for which it is estimated that it protects 21–30% of the total population. It does not occur in any protected areas in Ecuador. 

Conservation Needed
Further habitat protection is required. 

Research Needed
Surveys are needed to determine the population status of this species in Ecuador and further localities in Colombia.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2018. Rhaebo colomai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54462A85856993. . Downloaded on 20 August 2018.
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