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Bombina variegata 

Scope: Global
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae

Scientific Name: Bombina variegata
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow–bellied Toad
Synonym(s):
Rana variegata Linnaeus, 1758

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Sergius Kuzmin, Mathieu Denoël, Brandon Anthony, Franco Andreone, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Milan Vogrin, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss, Miklós Puky, Judit Vörös, David Tarkhnishvili, Natalia Ananjeva
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed over much of central and southern Europe. It is generally present from central France through central Germany and northern and western Switzerland, north-eastern Italy, the Balkan region and the Carpathian Mountains. Isolated populations are present in Hungary and northern Germany, and its range in northwestern France is now severely fragmented. It is probably extinct in Belgium and some populations have been lost in the south of France. There is only one population remaining in Luxembourg, and the same is true in the Netherlands. The presence of isolated populations in southwestern France (Medoc and Landes) requires confirmation. It has been introduced to the United Kingdom, but it is not known if the species is still present and is not mapped here. The species has an altitudinal range of 100-2,100m asl. Its distribution in western and north-western parts of its range is more fragmented than is shown on the distribution map.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Switzerland; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:
Belgium
Introduced:
United Kingdom
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):2100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species has experienced local extinctions and population declines in western and north-western parts of its range (e.g., southern Switzerland, northwestern and southern France, Germany). However, over parts of its range such as the Carpathian Mountains, Poland and Slovenia, it is still common in suitable habitat.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It can be found in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, bushlands and meadows, floodplains and grasslands. At low elevations this species lives in deciduous forests, at higher altitudes it is more often found in coniferous forests and highland glades. The species uses many types of wetland, including lakes, ponds, swamps, rivers, stream pools, springs (including mineral and thermal springs), puddles, reservoirs, gravel and clay pits, ditches and even water filled wheel ruts. The breeding habitats are typically unshaded temporary pools within, or close to, woodland. The species can tolerate slight water pollution, and has been recorded at very high densities in areas of cleared woodland in the Carpathian Mountains. This species regularly hybridizes with B. bombina in many contact areas.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): At a global scale, the species appears not to be significantly threatened. Populations of this species might be locally threatened by the loss of suitable habitat to urbanization, road construction, industry (including oil extraction and transportation) and discharge of pollutants into wetlands. Additionally, it is reported that it is collected as bait by fishermen in certain regions and that it is occasionally collected in large numbers for both the pet trade and scientific use. The impact of collection on this species needs further research. Some artificial habitats where the species occurs (e.g. gravel and clay pits) are threatened by succession. Hybridization with B. bombina might also be considered a threat, at least in some areas. Mosaic hybridization in Transylvania has resulted in the loss of pure populations (Vines 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annexes II and IV of Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation over much of its range and is present in many protected areas. Appropriate habitat management is needed to maintain wetlands and prevent succession to scrub and woodland. Re-introductions of the species might be needed in parts of the range. There is a need to monitor population changes in this species, especially in the hybrid zone between B. variegata and B. bombina.

Citation: Sergius Kuzmin, Mathieu Denoël, Brandon Anthony, Franco Andreone, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Milan Vogrin, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss, Miklós Puky, Judit Vörös, David Tarkhnishvili, Natalia Ananjeva. 2009. Bombina variegata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54451A11148290. . Downloaded on 30 September 2016.
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