Bombina pachypus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae

Scientific Name: Bombina pachypus (Bonaparte, 1838)
Common Name(s):
English Appenine Yellow-bellied Toad
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: A number of authors consider Bombina pachypus to be a subspecies of Bombina variegata (Bologna et al. 2000; Ohler 1997; Hofman et al. 2007). The taxon was elevated to species level by Lanza and Vanni (1991) mainly through the use of preliminary electrophoretic data published in the form of a congress summary (Nascetti et al. 1982) and also on the basis of old morphological evidence (Vaccaneo 1931).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ce ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Andreone, F., Corti, C., Sindaco, R., Romano, A., Giachi, F., Vanni, S. & Delfino, G.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Listed as Endangered because of a population decline, estimated to be more than 50% (but presumably lower than 80%) inferred from a decline in the Area Of Occupancy, and significant reduction in mature individuals, in the past 10 years, possibly because of susceptibility of this species to the chytridiomycosis pathogen.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Italy, where it occurs south of the Po Valley, through the Appenine region, south to the southern tip of the Italian mainland. It ranges from 20 m asl up to almost 1,700 m asl (in Latium).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):20
Upper elevation limit (metres):1700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It was formerly common in suitable habitat. However, the species has declined in almost all of its range (with the exception of Calabria, where populations remain stable) over the last 10 years. A survey of representative sites across the species' range showed that the species disappeared from >50% of surveyed sites between 1996 and 2004 (55 occupied sites in 1996 versus 23 occupied sites in 2004; Barbieri et al. 2004). Significant recent declines in the populations of this species have been recorded from the Province of Siena (Piazzini et al. 2005); Abruzzo (Ferri et al. 2007); Ancona (Fiacchini 2003); Lazio (Bologna et al. 2000, Bologna et al. 2007) and Emilia-Romagna (Stagni et al. 2005).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in shallow, unshaded pools in forests and open areas. Spawning and larval development takes place in these pools. It also occurs in modified habitats, such as low-intensity farmland, pastureland, ditches, irrigations areas, drinking troughs, and ponds.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats to this species are presumed to largely include loss and fragmentation of wetland habitat to drainage for intensive agricultural purposes. However many populations appear to have declined in areas of presumably intact habitat. In some places it may have very small populations (10-12 individuals; Mattoccia et al. 2005); these small populations are highly subject to stochastic extinctions. This species might also be threatened with chytridiomycosis, which has been associated with the deaths of several captive animals (Stagni et al. 2002, Stagni et al. 2005), and further research into the possible impacts of this disease on populations of this species is needed. The cause of recent serious population declines remains incompletely known, but it has been speculated that chytridiomycosis is responsible.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and on Annexes II and IV of the EU Habitats Directive, in both cases under Bombina variegata. It is known to occur in many protected areas including several National Parks. The cause of recent severe declines in this species requires urgent investigation and action.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: Reformatted names of Assessor(s), Reviewer(s), Contributor(s), Facilitator(s) and/or Compiler(s).

Citation: Andreone, F., Corti, C., Sindaco, R., Romano, A., Giachi, F., Vanni, S. & Delfino, G. 2009. Bombina pachypus (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54450A86629977. . Downloaded on 22 May 2018.
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