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Odorrana ishikawae 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Odorrana ishikawae
Species Authority: (Stejneger, 1901)
Common Name(s):
English Ishikawa's Frog
Synonym(s):
Buergeria ishikawae Stejneger, 1901
Rana ishikawae (Stejneger, 1901)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Taxonomic Notes: The population on Amami Island formerly identified as Odorrana ishikawae has been identified by Kuramoto et al. (2011) as a separate species named O. splendida.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-08-18
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Matsui, M. & Kaneko, Y.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ministry of the Environment, Japan & Yoneda, K.
Justification:

Odorrana ishikawae is endemic to Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be less than 340 km2 and area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be less than 150 km2. Its range is restricted to the clean water upper stream and to the only one location. In addition, recent deforestation, along with road and dam constructions has been causing reduction of the extent and quality of its habitat. Increasing road kills are also observed. Although the species is protected, these threats are continuing and therefore the species is listed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Odorrana ishikawae is endemic to Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. It occurs only on the northern part of the island from about sea level to 503 m asl. The geographic range of the species is limited to this single location where its area of occupancy is thought to be 208 km2 and its extent of occurrence 512 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Japan (Nansei-shoto)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:208Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:512
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):503
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although the population of this species is unknown, it is believed to be in serious decline due to ongoing habitat loss (Ministry of the Environment 2014).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Odorrana ishikawae is entirely restricted to the upstream regions of montane torrents, surrounded by primary or well-recovered secondary broad-leaved evergreen forests. The species needs permanent limpid streams with underground flow. 

The frog can be observed along the streams during its breeding season from December to April, where it reproduces by larval development. Its breeding peaks in January and February (Ministry of the Environment 2014). However, outside the breeding season adult individuals are hardly seen and the species' annual behaviour is not well known. 

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is in the pet trade in Japan and the USA.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is deforestation and development around stream areas (through road and dam construction), which has led to the destruction and degradation of the species' habitat. Increases in road kills are also considered to be a threat to the species and it is reported that the species is captured for pet trade, but details are not known (Ministry of the Environment 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is listed in Japan's Red Data Book (Ministry of the Environment 2014) as Endangered. It is designated as a prefectural natural monument by the Okinawa Prefecture and its capture is prohibited. 

Monitoring of the species is conducted by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOEJ) as part of the eradication work of the invasive mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus, although this is not thought to be a threat to this species. Mongoose eradication began in 2000 by the prefecture, and in 2001 by the MOEJ. The eradication work is ongoing in view of reaching the regional eradication target by 2022. The species is also subject to ex-situ conservation on a small scale at the Institute for Amphibian Biology, Hiroshima University. 


Research Needed
However, there remains a need for improved protection of forest habitat on Okinawa. In order to strengthen the protection of the island including the species' habitats, preparation for the designation of National Park and/or Forest Ecosystem Reserve by the Government is in progress. Education efforts to increase local awareness of the species' plight are also required. Finally, further research on the species' life history and ecology, population, and the pet trade is needed.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Odorrana ishikawae. (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54308994A115406253. . Downloaded on 18 August 2017.
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