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Cheirotonus jambar 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Scarabaeidae

Scientific Name: Cheirotonus jambar
Species Authority: Kurosawa, 1984
Common Name(s):
English Yanbaru Long-armed Scarab Beetle

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-02-14
Assessor(s): Ministry of the Environment, Japan
Reviewer(s): Gerlach, J. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Justification:
Cheirotonus jambar lives as one small population on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Islands of Japan (a single location). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is less than 340 km2 and its area of occupancy (AOO) is expected to be less than 150 km2. It's life cycle is dependent on natural forest with large trees, and deforestation caused by human activities is resulting in a rapid decline of the species. Although the species is protected, the threats are still ongoing, and therefore, the species is listed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cheirotonus jambar is endemic to the northern part of Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), Japan. The geographic range of the species is limited to this single location (Okinawa Prefectural Government 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Japan (Nansei-shoto)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100-150Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:150-340
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The number of the scarab beetles depends on the number of large trees with cavities suitable for breeding. Because the large trees are increasingly being logged, the number beetles is estimated to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Cheirotonus jambar inhabits primeval forest where many old and large Castanopsis sieboldii or Quercus miyagii scattered. These large trees (diameter at breast height exceeds 40 cm) often have cavities filled with a good layer of humus; this is the ideal breeding habitat for this scarab beetle. The larvae eat the accumulated humus and become pupae. Adults emerge from the pupae in autumn and stay in the cavity or "pupae room" for nearly a year. The adults emerge from the cavities in August or September of the following year, mate, and the females deposit eggs in the tree cavities. The life cycle takes three to four years for a single generation (Okinawa Prefectural Government 2005).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3-4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Animals are illegally collected by collectors and for the pet trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat currently is deforestation caused by logging and dam construction. Construction of roads through the forest is also making the forests drier (due to changes in drainage and increased exposure to wind and sunlight, etc) and it is thought that this also affects C. jambar. The new roads also provide easy and deeper access into the forest for collectors, and illegal collection of the beetles is increasing. In  trying to capture the beetles, collectors often damage or even destroy the tree cavities where the beetles occur thus reducing the number of breeding sites; this is becoming a significant threat to the species (Okinawa Prefectural Government 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Cheirotonus jambar is listed on the 4th Red List of Japan, Insects (Ministry of the Environment 2012) as Endangered. It is designated as a National Natural Monument by Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties in 1985, and any activities impacting this species including capture are prohibited. In 1996, C jambar was designated a National Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora under the Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This Law prohibits capture, collection, killing or any damage to this species. As a result of this designation, a species conservation plan was developed by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Environment Agency in 1997. An ecological study and research programme on the genetic diversity of the species has been started. In addition, the relevant authorities established a poaching prevention committee for C. jambar to implement anti-poaching activities. To further strengthen the protection of forests in the northern part of Okinawa Island including the habitat of  C. jambar, plans are underway to designate a National Park.


Citation: Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2015. Cheirotonus jambar. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54143047A54143052. . Downloaded on 29 June 2017.
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