|Scientific Name:||Coregonus autumnalis|
|Species Authority:||(Pallas, 1776)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
An important commercial species, and catches and abundance have reduced in recent years. However the species has a very widespread distribution and the overall population decline is not thought to be close to meeting 30% in the past three generations (30 years).
|Range Description:||All drainages (except Ob River and Lake Baikal basin in the Yenisey drainage) of Arctic Ocean in Eurasia from Mezen eastward; America from Cape Barrow to Coronation Bay. Introduced in many localities of former USSR, but not established.|
Native:Canada; Mongolia; Russian Federation; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Commonly reported in catch statistics from Canada (J. Freyhof pers comm). The population in Russia is in decline.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Migratory. Mostly larger lowland rivers. At sea, in salinity up to 22 ‰. Northernmost distribution among whitefishes; in summer enters open waters of Kara Sea and reaches Novosibirsk Islands.
Lives 10-12 years, rarely up to 20. Spends 6-8 years at sea before maturing and returning to rivers in June-July, to spawn in September-October of same year. A second run in autumn; those fishes remain a year in rivers before spawning. Moves far upstream, sometimes up to 1,500 km. Spawns in shallow tributaries with some current in well oxygenated water over gravel bottom. Individual females do not spawn every year; spawns only 2-3 times during entire life. After spawning, adults return directly to sea. Embryonic development lasts up to seven months. Alevins migrate downstream in May-June. At sea, feeds on larger crustaceans and small fish. No feeding during spawning run.
|Major Threat(s):||Overfishing, and pollution - mainly in Siberia.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Coregonus autumnalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2015.|
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