|Scientific Name:||Actinella littorinella|
|Species Authority:||(J. Mabille, 1883)|
Actinella effugiens (Waldén, 1983)
Walden (1983) created Actinella (Plebecula) effugiens nov. nom. for Helix lurida Lowe, 1831 (not C. Pfeiffer, 1828) but overlooked Actinella (Plebecula) littorinella (Mabille, 1883) (Bank et al. 2002).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 2.3|
|Reviewer/s:||Neubert, E., Groh, K. & Cuttelod, A.|
This species has a restricted distribution. It is present in four areas, one protected site on Cima, but on the other three hills of eastern Porto Santo, it is localised with the grassland and is under pressure from grazing, tourist recreational activities and spread of Theba pisana and rodents. Based on the current distribution and the likely localised impact of the threats, it is listed as Vulnerable (VU) D2. However, on the longer term, the establishment of protected areas on Porto Santo may lead to relisting this species as Near Threatened if the increased protection for the habitats is successful. Recommended conservation actions include management of the protected areas for maintenance of the species and monitoring of the protected areas to ensure no loss of further habitat and subpopulations.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Madeiran islands, where it is only found on Porto Santo and on one offshore islet (Seddon 2008). The species is locally distributed over the eastern part of the island and on the Ilheu de Baixo, with a total area of occupancy of 12 km2 in four hillslope areas (Seddon 2008).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species has a localised distribution, but can be frequently encountered at sites. However, it is never abundant.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a ground-dwelling species which is usually found on grassland areas, under stones and in rocky places.|
|Major Threat(s):||Seddon (2008) lists the major threats as habitat disturbance as the species occurs within a small part of the island and on one offshore islet. The potential causes are changes in land-use from agriculture, loss of grassland for urbanisation and tourism and possible impact of competition with Theba pisana.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in at least one protected area. Given that the species occurs within a small part of the island and on one offshore islet and the threats include changes in land-use from agriculture, loss of grassland for urbanisation and tourism and possible impact of competition with Theba pisana recommended conservation actions include management of the protected areas for maintenance of the species and monitoring of the protected areas to ensure no loss of further habitat and subpopulations.|
|Citation:||Seddon, M. 2011. Actinella littorinella. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|