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Gentiana kurroo 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Gentianales Gentianaceae

Scientific Name: Gentiana kurroo Royle

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-07-16
Assessor(s): Ved, D., Saha, D., Ravikumar, K. & Haridasan, K.
Reviewer(s): Sayer, C.
Contributor(s): Rawat, G., Chandola, S., Nautiyal, A.R., Bhojvaid, P., Ghate, U., Naithani, R., Bhardwaj, N., Sharma, K., Verma, R., Jishtu, V., Kumar, R., Rawat, R., Tandon, V., Badola, H., Anu, V., Chauhan, N. & Gaur, R.
Justification:
This species is distributed in the Himalayan region across Pakistan, India and Nepal. This assessment was primarily based on the very limited reported presence of the species in wild and the high demand and prices for the dried roots of this plant. The wild population in India is inferred to have declined by 80% in a 10 year time period. The recent CAMP assessment also agrees with the trend of population decline of more than 80% in India (Goraya et al. 2013, Singh 2000). Therefore, the species is assessed as Critically Endangered. Although the species is distributed is from Himalayan region of Pakistan to west Nepal, the majority of the geographical range (80%) is in India. The situation in India is therefore considered representative of the global population of the species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in the Himalayan region across Pakistan, India and Nepal. It is endemic to the northwestern Himalayas and commonly grows in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and adjoining hills of northwestern Himalaya (Chaudhary and Washwa 1984).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir, Uttaranchal); Nepal; Pakistan
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2000-2500,2200Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:20000-25000,22000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):5000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Subpopulations have been recorded from Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the adjoining hills of northwestern Himalaya.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found in subalpine to alpine meadows of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and adjoining hills of northwestern Himalaya between 1,500-3,000 m asl. In Himachal Pradesh it has become sporadic in subalpine to alpine meadows. It can be collected from Kalga pattern (4,200 m asl), Dainasor rocky slopes (4,500-5,000 m asl), Pathrala thatch, Gajyani catchment (4,000 m asl), Dhamkhari marvi, Karal tibba in Solan and Mangarh area of Sirmour district at lower altitude at 2,000 m asl (Chauhan 1999). Plants of this species grow luxuriantly on southern open exposed slopes of mid and higher mountain ridges. Such sites are characterized by low temperature, high isolation, heavy wind speed and surrounded by tall grasses and scrubs and prefers to be overshadowed by them. Themeda anathera, Artemisia absinthium, A. scoparia, Asparagus filicinus, Biden cernua, Erigeron multicaulis, Hackelia macrophylla, Indigofera heterantha, Lespedeza elegans, Medicago minima, Rosa macrophylla, Sium latijugum, etc., are the companion species associated with Gentiana kurroo. Among these Themeda anathera is the dominant species (Khuroo et al. 2005). It has a generation length of one year.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):1-2,1

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used to treat coughs, stomach aches and fever. The trade name is “Trahimaan” and roots are traded in dried form. The root and rhizomes of this species are source of bitter glycosides (gentiopicrin and gentianin) and alkaloids (gentiomarin), and possess immense medicinal and pharmaceutical importance. This plant is valued as an antiperiodic, expectorant, antibilious, astringent, stomachic, antithelmintic, blood purifier and carminative (Sharma et al. 2014)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Major threats for this species are loss of habitat and unregulated harvesting. Habitat loss continues due to road construction and agricultural invasion. The population of the species has also declined due to over grazing and human settlements. Climate change, in terms of temperature and rainfall, has severe impacts on the population and habitat, for example the cloudburst in 2013 in Uttarakhand destroyed many of the natural habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Gentiana kurroo is mainly collected from the wild and there is no information regarding its cultivation. Hence, the species is under severe threat of extinction. It needs immediate attention in terms of trade regulation, habitat management and sustainable collection practice. Ex situ conservation and cultivation may help to reduce the pressure on wild population.

Citation: Ved, D., Saha, D., Ravikumar, K. & Haridasan, K. 2015. Gentiana kurroo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T50126594A50131345. . Downloaded on 23 November 2017.
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