Pareques acuminatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Sciaenidae

Scientific Name: Pareques acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English High-hat, Cluck, Cubbyu, Donkey Fish, Ribbonfish, Steindachner's Ribbonfish, Striped Drum, Striped Equetus, Striped Ribbonfish
French Curate, Évêque
Spanish Obispo, Payasito Largo, Vaqueta, Vaqueta Rayada
Grammistes acuminatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. 2013. Catalog of Fishes. Available at: (Accessed: 9 Sep 2013).
Taxonomic Notes: Young present color and fins pattern strikingly different than that of adults: White with black streaks and marks; pelvic and dorsal fin greatly elongate. The adults have several large horizontal dark bands, almost joined over a pale background and the fins are rather short (compared to young). Young of about 15 mm are already settled at the reef. There is suspicion that the larvae of this fish may lack pelagic stage (Leis, 1991).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2009-12-01
Assessor(s): Chao, L., Espinosa-Perez, H., Sampaio, C.L.S., Aguilera Socorro, O., Fredou, F.L., Padovani-Ferreira, B. & Carvalho-Filho, A.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Contributor(s): Jelks, H., Tolan, J. & Vega-Cendejas, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Harwell, H. & Polidoro, B.
This species is widely distributed and considered common in many parts of its range, especially in areas with reef structure. It is collected for the aquarium trade throughout its range, but this is not considered a major threat. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in the western Atlantic from North Carolina south along the U.S., the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and along South America to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2008, B. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009, R. Robertson pers. comm. 2014). Records from Bermuda are not representative of a native population (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):110
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common in many parts of its range, especially near shallow coral reefs. It is reported in most studies using UVC on inshore coral reefs (A. Carvalho-Filho, C. Sampaio and B. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009). Off southern Florida (USA), it is uncommon to rare (Bryan et al. 2013). Off Texas, it is uncommon and only known from juvenile records taken during the summer over hard bottom structures such as jetties (J. Tolan pers. comm. 2014). It is common, but not abundant off Mexico (M. Vega-Cendejas pers. comm. 2013).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs over sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal waters and near reef structure to about 60 m depth. McEachran (2009) reports it to 110 m. It is typically found in small groups beneath rock ledges by day. Juveniles occur in coastal lagoons. It has a very short larval phase and may lack a pelagic larval phase (Salle 1991). It feeds on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton.  


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species occurs in the aquarium trade and mixed reef fish artisanal catch. It is the most important sciaenid in the Brazilian aquarium trade. Recorded catch for this aquarium trade was 233,469 individuals in 6,968 landings. It is occasionally reared in captivity (A. Carvalho-Filho, C. Sampaio and B. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known major threats. It is collected for the aquarium trade in many parts of its range, especially juveniles. It is also caught as by-catch in artisanal trap fisheries. Reefs often subjected to sedimentation and other types of degradation may represent a localized threat (A. Carvalho-Filho, C. Sampaio, B. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009). It may be susceptible to lionfish predation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under the Instrução Normativa n° 202 which sets quotas for capture of ornamental fish in Brazil. The capture of 1,000 individuals is permitted for this species per year per company (trader). More research is needed to determine the impact of reef degradation and exploitation on its population.

Citation: Chao, L., Espinosa-Perez, H., Sampaio, C.L.S., Aguilera Socorro, O., Fredou, F.L., Padovani-Ferreira, B. & Carvalho-Filho, A. 2015. Pareques acuminatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T47148229A49231602. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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