Paphiopedilum tigrinum 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum tigrinum
Species Authority: Koop. & N.Haseg.
Common Name(s):
English Tiger Striped Paphiopedilum
Paphiopedilum markianum Fowlie
Paphiopedilum smaragdinum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen
Paphiopedilum tigrinum Koop. & N.Haseg. variety smaragdinum (Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen) Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen
Taxonomic Notes: Paphiopedilum smaragdinum Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen (P. tigrinum f. smaragdinum (Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen) O. Gruss), was described recently from Lushui in west Yunnan. It is similar in floral appearance to, but different in colour from, P. tigrinum. Its flowers are pale yellow-green, lacking any deep-coloured striping or spotting on the sepals and petals. It may be regarded as colour form or variety of P. tigrinum.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-03-17
Assessor(s): Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Global assessment: Endangered (EN)

Paphiopedilum tigrinum is rare and local with few disjunctive fragmented subpopulations and a very restricted distribution in China.

The population trend is decreasing. The abundance of the species has been significantly reduced during recent decades with a very high population decline due to many threats especially habitat destruction, logging, fires, deforestation, ruthless collection for horticultural purposes, regional and international trade, trampling, recreation, ecological disturbance, tourism and infrastructure development.

The estimated area of occupancy is 40 km². There is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of the habitats in all three locations. The number of mature individuals is estimated to be less than 1,000 in small fragmented subpopulations of less than 250. The population has declined by 50-79% in the last three generations and is projected to decline by 60-79% over the next three generations.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum tigrinum is assessed as Endangered (EN).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paphiopedilum tigrinum is found in southern China (western and eastern Yunnan, Lushui county, Malipo county, Tengchong county and Yingjiang county). The species is also reported in Thailand and Myanmar but these findings are questionable as no herbarium material is available.

Paphiopedilum tigrinum can be found between 1,200 and 2,500 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 21,000 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 40 km² and there are three locations.

(Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).
Countries occurrence:
China (Yunnan)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 40
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 21000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Number of Locations: 3
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Paphiopedilum tigrinum is very rare and very local species with very restricted distribution, fragmented subpopulations and few localities (three known localities in China which are considered as separate locations). Most known subpopulations are declining, highly depleted and there are only few observed specimens in each known locality.

Abundance of this species has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The population density is low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The estimated number of mature individuals is less than 1,000. The subpopulations contain a maximum of 250 mature individuals. The population has declined by 50-79% in the last three generations and is projected to decline by 60-79% over the next three generations.

(Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 250-1000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Paphiopedilum tigrinum is a perennial rosulate epiphytic, lithophytic or terrestrial herb. It grows in rocky places in forests or thicket margins along valleys, shrubby or thinly wooded slopes and on trees or mossy rocks.

Paphiopedilum tigrinum prefers humid, moist well-drained soils in humus and on steep mossy limestone cliffs. The species prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates associated with mountains and it flowers from May to August.

The maximum generation length is eight years.

(Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 7-8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Paphiopedilum tigrinum is a highly demanded ornamental plant and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum tigrinum is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as rocky high altitude, particular nutrient availability, steep mossy places and mid-shaded habitats.

The species has numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation through the deterioration of the surrounding environments, deforestation, fires, logging, random cutting, soil erosion, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade, trampling, recreation and ecological disturbance.

It is threatened more generally by climate change, drought, degradation of the habitat due mainly to tourism, leisure activities, urbanisation, infrastructure development, management activities, recreation activities with direct effects (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effects (e.g., alteration of habitat). In addition the intrinsic factors of the population which are considered a threat to the species are the limited distribution and low number of mature individuals.

(Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum tigrinum:
  • Field explorations are needed to find potential additional localities.
  • Propagation and repatriation of plants into native habitats
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.
  • Knowledge of the optimal growth conditions is required. Such information may help to develop effective ways to restore the natural habitat of the species
  • Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites.
  • Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).
  • Sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.
  • Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.
  • Learning about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species with the goal of establishing successful protocols for symbiotic ex-situ propagation and cultivation.
  • Further research on the life cycle and ecology of the species.
  • Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.
  • Ex-situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study the dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L. 2015. Paphiopedilum tigrinum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T46699A3011579. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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