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Paphiopedilum emersonii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum emersonii Koop. & P.J.Cribb
Common Name(s):
English Emerson's Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Paphiopedilum emersonii Koop. & P.J.Cribb ssp. huonglanae (N.T.Tich) N.T.Tich
Paphiopedilum huonglanae N.T.Tich
Taxonomic Notes: Variable species, particularly in size of flowers, petal shape and colour of the lip.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-01-22
Assessor(s): Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Justification:

Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)

Paphiopedilum emersonii is very rare and very local with few disjunct fragmented subpopulations and a very restricted distribution in China and Viet Nam.

The trend of the population is decreasing. The abundance of the species has been significantly reduced during recent decades with a very high population reduction decline due to many threats especially habitat destruction, logging, fires, deforestation, ruthless collection for horticultural purposes, regional and international trade, trampling, recreation, ecological disturbance, tourism and infrastructure development.

The species has declined by 80-97% over the last decade and a decline of the same magnitude is projected to continue in the next three generations (20-25 years). The estimated number of mature individuals is less than 250.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum emersonii is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Paphiopedilum emersonii occurs in few localities in Viet Nam (Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang provinces) and southern China (central to west Guangxi (Hechi county, Duan county, Dahua county) and south Guizhou (Libo county)).

Paphiopedilum emersonii can be found between 550 and 800 m asl.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 25,000 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 20 km2.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Guangxi, Guizhou); Viet Nam
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:20Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:25000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:5
Lower elevation limit (metres):550
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Paphiopedilum emersonii is a very rare and very local endemic to Viet Nam and China with few disjunct localities and very restricted distribution in fragmented subpopulations. There are only few observed specimens in each known locality with at least five localities in total in Viet Nam and China.

Paphiopedilum emersonii abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The species has declined by 80-97% over the last decade and a decline of the same magnitude is projected to continue in the next three generations (20-25 years). The population density is low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The estimated number of mature individuals is less than 250.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:250Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Paphiopedilum emersonii is a perennial rosulate terrestrial herb. It grows in primary, broad-leaved, evergreen, closed forests, shady cliffs and crevices of steep rocks in thickets in limestone areas.

Paphiopedilum emersonii prefers moist well-drained soils, mossy trees, steep stony, highly eroded, crystalline limestone and shaded limestone rocks cliffs. The species prefers shaded habitats in tropical climate associated with mountains. It flowers from April to June.

It has a maximum generation length of eight years.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7-8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Paphiopedilum emersonii is an ornamental plant and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collecting of this plant in the wild for the commercial traders.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Paphiopedilum emersonii is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as rocky high altitude, particular nutrient availability, steep, mossy places and shaded habitats.

Paphiopedilum emersonii is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation through the deterioration of the surrounding environments, deforestation, fires, logging, random cutting, soil erosion, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade, trampling, recreation and ecological disturbance.

Paphiopedilum emersonii is threatened more generally by climate change, drought, degradation of the habitat due mainly to tourism, leisure activities, urbanisation, infrastructure development, management activities, recreation activities with direct effects (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effects (e.g., alteration of habitat). In addition the intrinsic factors of the population, which are considered a threat to the species, are the limited distribution and low number of mature individuals.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov  2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES.

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum emersonii:

- Field explorations are needed to find potential additional localities.

- Organization and appropriate management of protected areas.

- Propagation and repatriation of plants into native habitats

- Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade instead of wild plants as the species is easy to grow.

- Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.

- Knowledge of the optimal growth conditions is required. Such information may help to develop effective ways to restore the natural habitat of the species

- Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.

- Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites.

- Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).

 - Sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.

- Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.

- Learning about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species with the goal of establishing successful protocols for symbiotic ex situ propagation and cultivation.

- Further research on the life cycle and ecology of the species.

- Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.

- Estimate the population size and study the dynamics. 


Citation: Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L. 2015. Paphiopedilum emersonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T46698A3011284. . Downloaded on 17 August 2018.
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