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Paphiopedilum urbanianum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ORCHIDALES ORCHIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum urbanianum
Species Authority: Fowlie
Common Name(s):
English Urban's Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Paphiopedilum urbanianum Fowlie forma alboviride Braem

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C1+2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-08-21
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Contributor(s): Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.
Justification:
Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)

Paphiopedilum urbanianum is a very local and rare species with a restricted distribution on Mindoro Island of the Philippines.

The number of mature individuals is very low at less than 50 mature individuals in a single subpopulation. The population reduction is very high at more than 95% in the last three generations and projected in the next three generations due to many threats, especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn agriculture and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The estimated extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both 4 km2 with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitat in the single location.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum urbanianum is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).
History:
2004 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paphiopedilum urbanianum is endemic to Mindoro Island in the Philippines and can be found in the Halcon mountain at mid-elevations between 400 and 800 m asl (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).  The extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO) are both estimated at 4 km2.
Countries:
Native:
Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Paphiopedilum urbanianum is very local and rare where it occurs, and is thought to be close to extinction in the wild. The species abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction of more than 95% in the last three generations and projected in the next three generations in the future. The number of mature individuals is very low, estimated to be less than 50 mature individuals in a single subpopulation (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Paphiopedilum urbanianum grows as terrestrial herb on the jungle floor between rock and humus pockets in subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. The species prefers moderately shaded habitats and flowers from winter to spring (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cribb 1987, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paphiopedilum urbanianum is an ornamental plant in high demand and it is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum urbanianum is under numerous threats including habitat degradation, human disturbance, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade, trampling, expansion of settlement areas, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture and soil erosion.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. Mt. Halcon is a declared protected area. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum urbanianum:
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Species based management and conservation is essential to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.
  • Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites and sympathetic management.
  • Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).
  • Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of the existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.
  • Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban individuals from picking or digging up the species.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study the dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum urbanianum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 July 2015.
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